City-wide compressed air energy systems have been built since 1870. Cities such as Paris, France; Birmingham, England; Dresden, Rixdorf and Offenbach, Germany and Buenos Aires, Argentina installed such systems. Victor Popp constructed the first systems to power clocks by sending a pulse of air every minute to change the pointer. They quickly evolved to deliver power to homes and industry. As of 1896, the Paris system had 2.2 MW of generation distributed at 550 kPa in 50 km of air pipes for motors in light and heavy industry. Usage was measured by meters. The systems were the main source of house-delivered energy in these days and also powered the machines of dentists, seamstresses, printing facilities and bakeries.
- 1978— The first utility-scale compressed air energy storage project was the 290 megawatt Huntorf plant in Germany using a salt dome.
- 1991— A 110 megawatt plant with a capacity of 26 hours was built in McIntosh, Alabama (1991). The Alabama facility's $65 million cost works out to $550 per Kilowatt hour of capacity, using a 19 million cubic foot solution mined salt cavern to store air at up to 1100 psi. Although the compression phase is approximately 82% efficient, the expansion phase requires combustion of natural gas at one third the rate of a gas turbine producing the same amount of electricity.
- November 2009— The US Department of energy awards $24.9 million in matching funds for phase one of a 300 MW, $356 million Pacific Gas and Electric CAES installation utilizing a saline porous rock formation being developed near Bakersfield in Kern County, California. Goals of the project is to build and validate an advanced design.
- December, 2010— DOE provides $29.4 million in funding to conduct preliminary work on a 150 MW salt-based CAES project being developed by Iberdrola USA in Watkins Glen, New York. The goal is to incorporate smart grid technology to balance intermittent renewable energy sources.
- 2013 (projected)— The first adiabatic CAES project, a 200 megawatt facility called ADELE, is planned for construction in Germany.
- 2016 (projected) - Apex has planned a CAES plant for Anderson County, Texas to go online in 2016
Read more about this topic: Iowa Stored Energy Park
Other articles related to "history":
... in some form or another has been seen in almost every society in history ... From the Ancient Greeks and Romans to Napoleon's France and Elizabethan England, much of history is filled with stories of entertainment based on games of chance ... In American history, early gambling establishments were known as saloons ...
... History of Charles XII, King of Sweden (1731) The Age of Louis XIV (1751) The Age of Louis XV (1746–1752) Annals of the Empire – Charlemagne, A.D ... II (1754) Essay on the Manners of Nations (or 'Universal History') (1756) History of the Russian Empire Under Peter the Great (Vol ... II 1763) History of the Parliament of Paris (1769) ...
... The Skeptical School of early Chinese history, started by Gu Jiegang in the 1920s, was the first group of scholars within China to seriously question the traditional story of its early history "the later the time, the ... early Chinese history is a tale told and retold for generations, during which new elements were added to the front end" ...
... The breakup of Al-Andalus into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative ... The capture of the strategically central city of Toledo in 1085 marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms ...
... The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper ...
Famous quotes containing the word history:
“The principal office of history I take to be this: to prevent virtuous actions from being forgotten, and that evil words and deeds should fear an infamous reputation with posterity.”
—Tacitus (c. 55c. 120)
“The history of the Victorian Age will never be written: we know too much about it.”
—Lytton Strachey (18801932)
“Let us not underrate the value of a fact; it will one day flower in a truth. It is astonishing how few facts of importance are added in a century to the natural history of any animal. The natural history of man himself is still being gradually written.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)