In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (often called insula, insulary cortex or insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus, the fissure separating the temporal and the frontal lobes.
The insulae are believed to be involved in consciousness and play a role in diverse functions usually linked to emotion or the regulation of the body's homeostasis. These functions include perception, motor control, self-awareness, cognitive functioning, and interpersonal experience. In relation to these it is involved in psychopathology.
The insular cortex is divided into two parts: the larger anterior insula and the smaller posterior insula in which more than a dozen field areas have been identified. The cortical area overlying the insula towards the lateral surface of the brain is the operculum (meaning "lid"). The opercula are formed from parts of the enclosing frontal, temporal and parietal lobes.
The insula was first described by Johann Christian Reil while describing cranial and spinal nerves and plexi. Henry Gray in Gray's Anatomy is responsible for it being known as the Island of Reil.
... He demonstrated experimentally that the insular cortex is a critical platform for feelings, a finding that has been widely replicated, and he uncovered cortical and ... in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala ... He also demonstrated that while the insular cortex plays a major role in feelings, it is not necessary for feelings to occur, suggesting that brain stem structures play a ...
... activated several brain areas, especially the anterior insular cortex, a region associated with visceral disgust ... fMRI data show that meditators recruit the posterior insular cortex (associated with interoception) during unfair offers and show reduced activity in ... People who have ventromedial frontal cortex lesions were found to be more likely to reject unfair offers ...
... Human brain frontal (coronal) section Human brain view on transverse temporal and insular gyri ...
Famous quotes containing the word insular:
“As this appalling ocean surrounds the verdant land, so in the soul of man there lies one insular Tahiti, full of peace and joy, but encompassed by all the horror of the half known life. God keep thee! Push not off from that isle, thou canst never return!”
—Herman Melville (18191891)