Indian Territory, also known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land within the United States of America that was reserved for the forced re-settlement of Native Americans. The general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834.
While Congress passed several Organic Acts that provided a path for statehood for much of the original Indian Country, Congress never passed an Organic Act for the Indian Territory. Indian Territory was never an organized incorporated territory of the United States. In general, tribes could not sell land to non-Indians (Johnson v. M'Intosh). Treaties with the tribes severely restricted entry of non-Indians into tribal areas; Indian tribes were largely self-governing, were suzerain nations, with established tribal governments and well established cultures. The region never had a formal government until after the American Civil War. Therefore, the geographical location commonly called "Indian Territory" was not a traditional territory.
After the Civil War the Southern Treaty Commission re-wrote treaties with tribes that sided with the Confederacy, reducing the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes and providing land to resettle Plains Indians and tribes of the mid-west. These re-written treaties included provisions for a Territorial Legislature (which could only meet 30 days per year) with proportional representation from various tribes.
The Oklahoma organic act of 1890 created an organized incorporated territory of the United States of Oklahoma Territory, with the intent of combining the Oklahoma and Indian territories into a single State of Oklahoma. The residents of Indian Territory proposed to Congress that Indian Territory be admitted to the Union as the State of Sequoyah. However, Congress rejected the idea and Oklahoma became a state in 1907.
Other articles related to "indian territory, indians, indian":
... to gain an independent reservation, as they were first placed under the Creek in Indian Territory ... The United States urged the Indians on reservations to adopt subsistence agriculture, but less than half the land was good for agriculture, and a third was not useful for stock raising or agriculture ... for the Seminole Freedmen following emancipation of slaves in Indian Territory in 1866 ...
... Interior Secretary Carl Schurz carried out Hayes's American Indian policy, beginning with preventing the War Department from taking over the Bureau of Indian Affairs ... culture, educational training, and dividing Indian land into individual allotments ... would lead to self-sufficiency and peace between Indians and whites ...
... The citizens of Indian Territory tried, in 1905, to gain admission to the union as the State of Sequoyah, but were rebuffed by Congress and an Administration which did ... With Oklahoma statehood in November 1907, Indian Territory was extinguished ... Many Indians continue to live in Oklahoma, especially in the eastern part ...
... in 1861, both the Union and Confederacy vied for control of the Indian Territory ... Cooper attacked Unionist tribes in the Indian Territory, Mikko aligned his followers with Opothleyahola’s Upper Creeks and resisted ... was assigned command of Company A of the First Indian Home Guards ...
Famous quotes containing the words territory and/or indian:
“A Country is not a mere territory; the particular territory is only its foundation. The Country is the idea which rises upon that foundation; it is the sentiment of love, the sense of fellowship which binds together all the sons of that territory.”
—Giuseppe Mazzini (18051872)
“The Indian attitude toward the land was expressed by a Crow named Curly: The soil you see is not ordinary soilit is the dust of the blood, the flesh, and the bones of our ancestors. You will have to dig down to find Natures earth, for the upper portion is Crow, my blood and my dead. I do not want to give it up.”
—For the State of Montana, U.S. public relief program. Montana: A State Guide Book (The WPA Guide to Montana)