# Inclined Plane

An inclined plane is a flat supporting surface tilted at an angle, with one end higher than the other, used as an aid for raising or lowering a load. The inclined plane is one of the six classical simple machines defined by Renaissance scientists. Inclined planes are widely used to move heavy loads over vertical obstacles; examples vary from a ramp used to load goods into a truck, to a person walking up a pedestrian ramp, to an automobile or railroad train climbing a grade.

Moving an object up an inclined plane requires less force than lifting it straight up, at a cost of an increase in the distance moved. The mechanical advantage of an inclined plane, the factor by which the force is reduced, is equal to the ratio of the length of the sloped surface to the height it spans. Due to conservation of energy, the same amount of mechanical energy (work) is required to lift a given object by a given vertical distance, disregarding losses from friction, but the inclined plane allows the same work to be done with a smaller force exerted over a greater distance.

The angle of friction, also sometimes called the angle of repose, is the maximum angle at which a load can rest motionless on an inclined plane due to friction, without sliding down. This angle is equal to the arctangent of the coefficient of static friction μs between the surfaces.

Two other simple machines are often considered to be derived from the inclined plane. The wedge can be considered a moving inclined plane. The screw consists of a narrow inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder.

The term may also refer to a specific implementation; a straight ramp cut into a steep hillside for transporting goods up and down the hill. It may include cars on rails or pulled up by a cable system; a funicular or cable railway, such as the Johnstown Inclined Plane.

Read more about Inclined Plane:  Uses, History, Frictionless Inclined Plane, Inclined Plane With Friction, Mechanical Advantage Using Power

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Inclined Plane - Mechanical Advantage Using Power
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... Having completed the Wombridge Canal and the Ketley Canal with its inclined plane in 1788, William Reynolds, an innovative Ironmaster from Ketley in his twenties, set his sights ... Despite the known success of the inclined plane on the neighbouring Ketley Canal, water in the Ketley Canal was being lost from locks at the incline's ... was quick, as the section from the top of the Wrockwardine Wood inclined plane to the junction with the Ketley Canal was finished in early 1789 ...