Vocabulary in Ido is derived from French, Italian, Spanish, English, German, and Russian. Basing the vocabulary on various widespread languages was intended to make Ido as easy as possible for the greatest number of people possible. Early on, the first 5,371 Ido word roots were analyzed compared to the vocabulary of the six source languages, and the following result was found:
- 2024 roots (38%) belong to 6 languages
- 942 roots (17%) belong to 5 languages
- 1111 roots (21%) belong to 4 languages
- 585 roots (11%) belong to 3 languages
- 454 roots (8%) belong to 2 languages
- 255 roots (5%) belong to 1 language
Another analysis showed that:
- 4880 roots (91%) are found in French
- 4454 roots (83%) are found in Italian
- 4237 roots (79%) are found in Spanish
- 4219 roots (79%) are found in English
- 3302 roots (61%) are found in German
- 2821 roots (52%) are found in Russian
|bona||good ("bonus")||buono||bon||gut ("Bonus")||khoroshiy (хороший)||bueno|
|donar||give ("donate")||dare ("donare")||donner||geben||darit (дарить)||dar, donar|
|kavalo||horse ("cavalry")||cavallo||cheval||Pferd ("Kavallerie")||loshad, kobyla (лошадь, кобыла)||caballo|
|maro||sea ("marine")||mare||mer||Meer||more (море)||mar|
|yuna||young ("juvenile")||giovane||jeune||jung||yunyi, molodoy (юный, молодой)||joven|
Vocabulary in Ido is often created through a number of official prefixes and suffixes that alter the meaning of the word. This allows a user to take existing words and modify them to create neologisms when necessary, and allows for a wide range of expression without the need to learn new vocabulary each time. Though their number is too large to be included in one article, some examples include:
- The diminutive suffix -et-. Domo (house) becomes dometo (cottage), and libro (book) becomes libreto (novelette or short story).
- The pejorative suffix -ach-. Domo becomes domacho (hovel), and libro becomes libracho (a shoddy piece of work, pulp fiction, etc.)
- The prefix retro-, which implies a reversal. Irar (to go) becomes retroirar (to go back, backward) and venar (to come) becomes retrovenar (to return).
New vocabulary is generally created through an analysis of the word, its etymology, and reference to the six source languages. If a word can be created through vocabulary already existing in the language then it will usually be adopted without need for a new radical (such as wikipedio for Wikipedia, which consists of wiki + enciklopedio for encyclopedia), and if not an entirely new word will be created. The word alternatoro for example was adopted in 1926, likely because five of the six source languages used largely the same orthography for the word, and because it was long enough to avoid being mistaken for other words in the existing vocabulary. Adoption of a word is done through consensus, after which the word will be made official by the union. Care must also be taken to avoid homonyms if possible, and usually a new word undergoes some discussion before being adopted. Foreign words that have a restricted sense and are not likely to be used in everyday life (such as the word intifada to refer to the conflict between Israel and Palestine) are left untouched, and often written in italics.
Ido, unlike Esperanto, does not assume the male sex by default. For example, Ido does not derive the word for waitress by adding a feminine suffix to waiter, as Esperanto does. Instead, Ido words are defined as sex-neutral, and two different suffixes derive masculine and feminine words from the root: servisto for a waiter of either sex, servistulo for a male waiter, and servistino for a waitress. There are only two exceptions to this rule: First, patro for father, matro for mother, and genitoro for parent, and second, viro for man, muliero for woman, and adulto for adult.
Read more about this topic: Ido
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Famous quotes containing the word vocabulary:
“The vocabulary of pleasure depends on the imagery of pain.”
—Marina Warner (b. 1946)
“I have a vocabulary all my own. I pass the time when it is wet and disagreeable. When it is fine I do not wish to pass it; I ruminate it and hold on to it. We should hasten over the bad, and settle upon the good.”
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