Each word in the Ido vocabulary is built from a root word. A word consists of a root and a grammatical ending. Other words can be formed from that word by removing the grammatical ending and adding a new one, or by inserting certain affixes between the root and the grammatical ending.
Some of the grammatical endings are defined as follows:
|Singular noun||-o (libro)||book||-o (libro)|
|Plural noun||-i (libri)||books||-oj (libroj)|
|Adjective||-a (varma)||warm||-a (varma)|
|Adverb||-e (varme)||warmly||-e (varme)|
|Present tense infinitive||-ar (irar)||to be going||to go||-anti (iranti)||-i (iri)|
|Past tense infinitive||-ir (irir)||to have gone||-inti (irinti)|
|Future tense infinitive||-or (iror)||to be going to go||-onti (ironti)|
|Present||-as (iras)||go, goes||-as (iras)|
|Past||-is (iris)||went||-is (iris)|
|Future||-os (iros)||will go||-os (iros)|
|Imperative||-ez (irez)||go!||-u (iru)|
|Conditional||-us (irus)||would go||-us (irus)|
These are the same as in Esperanto except for -i, -ir, -ar, -or and -ez. Esperanto marks noun plurals by an agglutinative ending -j (so plural nouns end in -oj), uses -i for verb infinitives (Esperanto infinitives are tenseless), and uses -u for the imperative. Verbs in Ido do not conjugate depending on person, number or gender; the -as, -is, and -os endings suffice whether the subject is I, you, he, she, they, or anything else.
Read more about this topic: Ido
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