Interactions With The Environment
Parainfluenza viruses last only a few hours in the environment and are inactivated by soap and water. Furthermore, the virus can also be easily destroyed using common hygiene techniques and detergents, disinfectants and antiseptics.
Environmental factors which are important for hPIV survival are pH, humidity, temperature and the medium the virus in found within. The optimal pH is around the physiologic pH values (7.4 to 8.0), whilst at high temperatures (above 37°C) and low humidity, infectivity reduces.
The majority of transmission has been linked to close contact, especially in nosocomial infections. Chronic care facilities and doctors surgery’s are also known to be transmission 'hotspots' with transmission occurring via aerosols, large droplets and also fomites (contaminated surfaces).
The exact infectious dose remains unknown.
Read more about this topic: Human Parainfluenza Viruses
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