National Wildlife Refuge
On June 27, 1974, Secretary of the Interior Rogers Morton created Howland Island National Wildlife Refuge which was expanded in 2009 to add submerged lands within 12 nautical miles (22 km) of the island. The refuge now includes 648 acres (2.62 km2) of land and 410,351 acres (1,660.63 km2) of water. Along with six other islands, the island was administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as part of the Pacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex. In January 2009, that entity was upgraded to the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument by President George W. Bush.
The island habitat has suffered from the presence from multiple invasive exotic species. Black rats were introduced in 1854 and eradicated in 1938 by feral cats introduced the year before. The cats themselves proved to be destructive to bird species and were eliminated by 1985. Pacific crabgrass continues to compete with local plants.
Public entry to the island is by special-use permit from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service only and is generally restricted to scientists and educators. Representatives from the agency visit the island on average once every two years, often coordinating transportation with amateur radio operators or the U.S. Coast Guard to defray the high cost of logistical support required to visit this remote atoll.
Read more about this topic: Howland Island
Other articles related to "national wildlife refuge, refuge, refuges, national wildlife refuges, wildlife, national wildlife, national":
... In addition to refuge status, the "special" status of lands within individual refuges may be recognized by additional designations, either legislatively or ... The influence that special designations may have on the management of refuge lands and waters may vary considerably ... There is a wide variety of special land designations that currently overlay national wildlife refuges that total 175 refuges ...
... San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge is a 13,190-acre (53.4 km2) National Wildlife Refuge in California established in 1970 ... The refuge encompasses the largest remaining continuous patch of pickleweed-dominated tidal marsh in the northern San Francisco Bay ... The Refuge includes a variety of habitats including open water, mud flat, tidal marsh, and seasonal and managed wetlands ...
... The Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge was first identified as a high priority site for protection in 1978 by the Service's Bottomland Hardwood ... In 1991, the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources asked the service to consider the site for protection as a unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System ... Clarks River is the only National Wildlife Refuge located solely within the bounds of the State of Kentucky ...
... The San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex is managed by the U.S Fish Wildlife Service and is composed of the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge, Merced National Wildlife ... The refuge units are located in the northern San Joaquin Valley of California in Merced and Stanislaus Counties ... out of Los Banos, California and uses the Sierra National Forest Emergency Communication Center located in Fresno, California for Emergency dispatch ...
... The Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 established a comprehensive national fish and wildlife policy and broadened the authority for acquisition and development of refuges ... demands for recreational activities after World War II, Congress passed the Refuge Recreation Act of 1962 ... This Act authorized the recreational use of refuges when such uses did not interfere with the area's primary purposes and when sufficient funds were available to ...
Famous quotes containing the words refuge, national and/or wildlife:
“The only refuge left to us was the poets ivory tower, which we climbed, ever higher, to isolate ourselves from the mob.”
—Gérard De Nerval (18081855)
“Thinking is the most unhealthy thing in the world, and people die of it just as they die of any other disease. Fortunately, in England at any rate, thought is not catching. Our splendid physique as a people is entirely due to our national stupidity.”
—Oscar Wilde (18541900)
“Russian forests crash down under the axe, billions of trees are dying, the habitations of animals and birds are layed waste, rivers grow shallow and dry up, marvelous landscapes are disappearing forever.... Man is endowed with creativity in order to multiply that which has been given him; he has not created, but destroyed. There are fewer and fewer forests, rivers are drying up, wildlife has become extinct, the climate is ruined, and the earth is becoming ever poorer and uglier.”
—Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (18601904)