HMG-CoA Reductase

HMG-CoA reductase (or 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase or HMGCR) is the rate-controlling enzyme (EC 1.1.1.88) of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol and other isoprenoids. Normally in mammalian cells this enzyme is suppressed by cholesterol derived from the internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via the LDL receptor as well as oxidized species of cholesterol. Competitive inhibitors of the reductase induce the expression of LDL receptors in the liver, which in turn increases the catabolism of plasma LDL and lowers the plasma concentration of cholesterol, an important determinant of atherosclerosis. This enzyme is thus the target of the widely available cholesterol-lowering drugs known collectively as the statins. HMG-CoA reductase is anchored in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, and was long regarded as having seven transmembrane domains, with the active site located in a long carboxyl terminal domain in the cytosol. More recent evidence shows it to contain eight transmembrane domains.

The enzyme commission designation is EC 1.1.1.34 for the NADPH-dependent enzyme, whereas 1.1.1.88 links to an NADH-dependent enzyme.

In humans, the gene for HMG-CoA reductase is located on the long arm of the fifth chromosome (5q13.3-14). Related enzymes having the same function are also present in other animals, plants and bacteria.

Read more about HMG-CoA ReductaseReaction, Interactive Pathway Map, Importance, Regulation

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HMG-CoA Reductase - Regulation - Phosphorylation of Reductase
... Short-term regulation of HMG-CoA reductase is achieved by inhibition by phosphorylation (of Serine 872, in humans) ... was believed that a cascade of enzymes controls the activity of HMG-CoA reductase an HMG-CoA reductase kinase was thought to inactivate the enzyme, and the kinase in ... Goldstein and Michael Brown adds specifics HMG-CoA reductase is phosphorylated and inactivated by an AMP-activated protein kinase, which also ...