History of Louisiana - Prehistory - Woodland Period

Woodland Period

The Poverty Point culture was followed by the Tchefuncte and Lake Cormorant cultures of the Tchula period, local manifestations of Early Woodland period. These descendant cultures differed from Poverty Point culture in trading over shorter distances, creating less massive public projects, completely adopting ceramics for storage and cooking. The Tchefuncte culture were the first people in Louisiana to make large amounts of pottery. Ceramics from the Tchefuncte culture have been found in sites from eastern Texas to eastern Florida, and from coastal Louisiana to southern Arkansas. These cultures lasted until 200 CE.

The Middle Woodland period starts in Louisiana with the Marksville culture in the southern and eastern part of the state and the Fourche Maline culture in the northwestern part of the state. The Marksville culture takes its name from the Marksville Prehistoric Indian Site in Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana. These cultures were contemporaneous with the Hopewell cultures of Ohio and Illinois, and participated in the Hopewell Exchange Network. At this time populations became more sedentary and began to establish semi-permanent villages and to practice agriculture, planting various cultigens of the Eastern Agricultural Complex. The populations began to expand, and trade with various nonlocal peoples also began to increase. Trade with peoples to the southwest brought the bow and arrow An increase in the hierarchical structuring of their societies, whether indigenously developed or through borrowing from the Hopewell is not certain, also began during this time period. The dead were treated in increasingly elaborate ways, as the first burial mounds are built at this time. Political power begins to be consolidated as the first platform mounds at ritual centers are constructed for the developing of hereditary political and religious leadership.

By 400 CE in the eastern part of the state the Late Woodland period had begun with the Baytown and Troyville cultures and later the Coles Creek culture. Archeologists have traditionally viewed the Late Woodland as a time of cultural decline after the florescence of the Hopewell peoples. Late Woodland sites, with the exception of sites along the Florida Gulf Coast, tend to be small when compared with Middle Woodland sites. Although settlement size was small, there was an increase in Late Woodland sites over Middle Woodland sites, indicating a population increase. These factors tend to mark the Late Woodland period as an expansive period, not one of a cultural collapse. Where the Baytown peoples began to build more dispersed settlements, the Troyville people instead continued building major earthwork centers. The type site for the culture, the Troyville Earthworks, once had the second tallest precolumbian mound in North America and the tallest in Louisiana at 82 feet (25 m) in height. The Coles Creek culture from 700 to 1200 CE marks a significant change in the cultural history of the area. Population increased dramatically and there is strong evidence of a growing cultural and political complexity, especially by the end of the Coles Creek sequence. Although many of the classic traits of chiefdom societies are not yet manifested, by 1000 CE the formation of simple elite polities had begun. Coles Creek sites are found in Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Mississippi, and Texas. Many Coles Creek sites were erected over earlier Woodland period mortuary mounds, leading researchers to speculate that emerging elites were symbolically and physically appropriating dead ancestors to emphasize and project their own authority.

Read more about this topic:  History Of Louisiana, Prehistory

Other articles related to "woodlands, woodland period, periods, woodland, period":

Visual Arts By Indigenous Peoples Of The Americas - North America - Eastern Woodlands - Northeastern Woodlands
... The Eastern Woodlands, or simply woodlands, cultures inhabited the regions of North America east of the Mississippi River at least since 2500 BCE ... The Woodland Period (1000 BCE–1000 CE) is divided into early, middle, and late periods, and consisted of cultures that relied mostly on hunting and gathering for their subsistence ... The Adena culture are another well-known example of an early Woodland culture ...
Late Woodland Period (500–1000 CE)
... The late Woodland period was a time of apparent population dispersal, although populations do not appear to have decreased ... agriculture did not begin until the following Mississippian period, the beginning of serious cultivation greatly supplemented the gathering of plants ... Late Woodland settlements became more numerous, but the size of each one (with exceptions) was smaller than their middle Woodland counterparts ...
Stoner Site - Conclusions
... to be identified as members of the Middle Woodland period Allison-Lamotte culture, which was first defined in 1963, and which flourished from around the birth of Christ until AD 400 ... Unlike many of the mounds built by other peoples of the Woodland period, Allison-Lamotte mounds were sometimes built for non-mortuary purposes the owners' inability to find grave goods in the mound is ... Riverton culture of the earlier Archaic period was also present, but their artifacts are few and insignificant compared to those of the Allison-Lamotte period ...
Mialoquo (Cherokee Town) - Archaeological Findings - Rose Island
... Rose Island also saw a period of significant occupation from approximately 350 BC through 100 AD, during the Woodland period ... Archaic period artifacts found on Rose Island include notched and stemmed projectile points, splintered wedges, various ground stone artifacts, and a drill ... Woodland period artifacts include projectile points, drills, scrapers, axes, gorgets, and a bird effigy ...
Prehistory Of West Virginia - Woodland Period - Adena Mounds
... Adena mounds in West Virginia include Camden Park Mound, Cabell County Criel Mound, Kanawha County, 250–150 BCE Cresap Mound (46MR7), Marshall County, 1735 BCE Cotiga Mound (46MO1), on the Tug Fork of the Big Sandy River, Mingo County, 1400 BCE Grave Creek Mound, Moundsville, 250-150 BCE St ... Albans Site (46KA27), Kanawha County Turkey Creek Mound (46PU2), Putnam County Goff Mound, Harrison County Lynden Reynolds Farm Mound, Pleasants County St Mary's Mound The Grave Creek Mound in Moundsville is the largest mound in the state and was once surrounded by a moat ...

Famous quotes containing the words period and/or woodland:

    Stupid word, that. Period. In America it means “full stop” like in punctuation. That’s stupid as well. A period isn’t a full stop. It’s a new beginning. I don’t mean all that creativity, life-giving force, earth-mother stuff, I mean it’s a new beginning to the month, relief that you’re not pregnant, when you don’t have to have a child.
    Michelene Wandor (b. 1940)

    I already, and for weeks afterward, felt my nature the coarser for this part of my woodland experience, and was reminded that our life should be lived as tenderly and daintily as one would pluck a flower.
    Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862)