History of Cumbria - Timeline


c.11,000 Ice sheets melt
c.8,000 Mesolithic hunter-gatherers settle coastal
c.6,000 Langdale Axe Factory begins
c.3,200 Castlerigg Stone Circle begun
c.50–59 First rebellion by Venutius against Cartimandua, failed
69 Second rebellion by Venutius, he gains possession of Brigantian kingdom
71 Roman conquest of Brigantes begins
78 Agricola advances in Cumbria and places garrisons between the Solway and Tyne
79–80 Further military campaigns by Agricola
122 Hadrian's Wall begun
142 Antonius Pius abandons Hadrian's Wall
164 Hadrian's Wall reoccupied
c.400 Romans begin withdrawing troops to Europe
410 Official end of Roman Britain, Coel Hen takes over as High King of Northern Britain
c.420 Coel Hen dies, Ceneu takes over Northern Britain
c.450 Ceneu dies; Rheged created by Gwrast Lledlwm
c.490 Gwrast Lledlwm dies; Rheged given to Merchion Gul
535 Merchion Gul dies; Rheged divided into North, given to Cynfarch Oer, and South
559 Catraeth added to Rheged lands
c.570 Cynfarch Oer dies; Urien Rheged becomes King
573 Caer-Guenddolau added to Rheged lands
c.585 Battle of Ynys Metcaut; Urien killed by Morcant Bulc; Owain map Urien becomes King
c.597 Owain map Urien killed by Morcant Bulc
c.616 Angles of Bernacia enter Rheged
c.638 Riemmelth, Princess of Rheged marries Oswiu, Prince of Northumbria
685 St Cuthbert granted land around Carlisle, where he founds a priory, and Cartmel
875 Danes sack Carlisle
c.925 Norse arrive
945 Edmund I defeats Dunmail and cedes Cumbria to Malcolm I of Scotland
1092 William II restores Cumbria to England
1136 King Stephen forced to cede Cumbria to Scotland
1157 Henry II regains Cumbria
1182 Lancashire created, including part of South Cumbria
1316 Scottish raids along the west coast as far as Furness and Cartmel
1322 Scottish raids; the Abbot of Furness attempts to bribe Robert the Bruce
1745 Battle of Clifton, last military battle fought on English soil
1951 Lake District National Park established
1974 Modern county of Cumbria established

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