Following legislation supporting the equality of French Jews with other citizens during the French Revolution, similar laws promoting Jewish emancipation were enacted in the early 19th century in those parts of Europe over which France had influence. The old laws restricting them to ghettos, as well as the many laws that limited their property rights, rights of worship and occupation, were rescinded.
Despite this, traditional discrimination and hostility to Jews on religious grounds persisted and was supplemented by racial antisemitism, encouraged by the work of racial theorists such as Joseph Arthur de Gobineau and particularly his Essay on the Inequality of the Human Race of 1853–5. Nationalist agendas based on ethnicity, known as ethnonationalism, usually excluded the Jews from the national community as an alien race. Allied to this were theories of Social Darwinism, which stressed a putative conflict between higher and lower races of human beings. Such theories, usually posited by white Europeans, advocated the superiority of white Aryans to Semitic Jews.
Read more about this topic: History Of Antisemitism
Other articles related to "nineteenth century, century, nineteenth":
... The parish priest of Strzepcz did not want to rebuild the Sianowo church ... However, The Madonna was shown to a woman who prophesied that it was absolutely necessary to rebuild the church, and that doing otherwise would lead to bad luck ...
... Between the tenth and the twelfth century the political situation seems to have become calmer and the impact of epidemics reduced ... According to the nineteenth century historian Auguste Digot, life became easier in the villages of Lorraine during this time ("une certaine aisance règna ... By the middle of the thirteenth century La Neuveville had become sufficiently important to become a parish in its own right, and the size of the church at this time provides one clue as to the ...
... Orzyc River initially settled in the early nineteenth century on the estate of Kazimierz Krasiński ... It remained part of the Krasiński and Wawrzyńca estate until late in the nineteenth century ... In 1827 the settlement had 81 residents, and, by the middle of the nineteenth center, the village contained a dozen homes ...
... American Nineteenth Century History 2003 4(3) 29-60 ... Godkin, and the Liberal Republicans of 1872" American Nineteenth Century History 2001 2(1) 53-74 ... Horace Greeley, Nineteenth-Century Crusader (1953) online edition ...
... The Social Implications of Very Early Marriage in Eastern Europe in the Nineteenth Century," in Ezra Mendelsohn and Chone Shmeruk (eds.), Studies on Polish Jewry ... "Remarriage Among Jews and Christians in Nineteenth-Century Eastern Europe," Jewish History 3,2(1988) 85–114 ... “Gender Differentiation and Education of the Jewish Woman in Nineteenth-Century Eastern Europe”, Polin 7 (1992) 459–483 ...
Famous quotes related to nineteenth century:
“American family life has never been particularly idyllic. In the nineteenth century, nearly a quarter of all children experienced the death of one of their parents.... Not until the sixties did the chief cause of separation of parents shift from death to divorce.”
—Richard Louv (20th century)
“Well, well, Henry James is pretty good, though he is of the nineteenth century, and that glaringly.”
—Robert Louis Stevenson (18501894)
“Of the creative spirits that flourished in Concord, Massachusetts, during the middle of the nineteenth century, it might be said that Hawthorne loved men but felt estranged from them, Emerson loved ideas even more than men, and Thoreau loved himself.”
—Leon Edel (b. 1907)
“Posteritythe forlorn child of nineteenth century optimismgrows ever harder to conceive.”
—Mason Cooley (b. 1927)
“We have now traced the history of women from Paradise to the nineteenth century and have heard nothing through the long roll of the ages but the clank of their fetters.”
—Jane, Lady Wilde (18211896)