Hardware Random Number Generator

Hardware Random Number Generator

Random numbers are used in both symmetric and asymmetric cryptography as a way of generating keys and for the random values used in the operation of some algorithms. Since integrity of the communication between the two parties is conditional on the continued secrecy of these keys, using a random number generator which does not have adequate randomness may be expected to compromise the security of messages.

In computing, a hardware random number generator is an apparatus that generates random numbers from a physical process, rather than a computer program. Such devices are often based on microscopic phenomena that generate a low-level, statistically random "noise" signal, such as thermal noise or the photoelectric effect or other quantum phenomena. These processes are, in theory, completely unpredictable, and the theory's assertions of unpredictability are subject to experimental test. A hardware random number generator typically consists of a transducer to convert some aspect of the physical phenomena to an electrical signal, an amplifier and other electronic circuitry to increase the amplitude of the random fluctuations to a macroscopic level, and some type of analog to digital converter to convert the output into a digital number, often a simple binary digit 0 or 1. By repeatedly sampling the randomly varying signal, a series of random numbers is obtained.

Random number generators can also be built from "random" macroscopic processes, using devices such as coin flipping, dice, roulette wheels and lottery machines. The presence of unpredictability in these phenomena can be justified by the theory of unstable dynamical systems and chaos theory. Even though macroscopic processes are deterministic under Newtonian mechanics, the output of a well-designed device like a roulette wheel cannot be predicted in practice, because it depends on the sensitive, micro-details of the initial conditions of each use.

Although dice have been mostly used in gambling, and in more recent times as "randomizing" elements in games (e.g. role playing games), the Victorian scientist Francis Galton described a way to use dice to explicitly generate random numbers for scientific purposes in 1890.

Hardware random number generators are often relatively slow, that is they produce a limited number of random bits per second. In order to increase the data rate, they are often used to generate the "seed" for a faster cryptographic PRNG, which then generates the pseudorandom output sequence.

Read more about Hardware Random Number GeneratorUses, Early Work, Physical Phenomena With Quantum-random Properties, Physical Phenomena Without Quantum-random Properties, Dealing With Bias, Using Observed Events, Problems

Other articles related to "random, generator, hardware random number generator, hardware random number generators, hardware":

Random Password Generator - Stronger Methods
... exist for generating strong, cryptographically secure random passwords ... On Unix platforms /dev/random and /dev/urandom are commonly used, either programmatically or in conjunction with a program such as makepasswd ... FIPS 181—Automated Password Generator—describes a standard process for converting random bits (from a hardware random number generator) into somewhat pronounceable "words" suitable for a ...
Uniform Integrability - Related Corollaries
... If is a UI random variable, by splitting and bounding each of the two, it can be seen that a uniformly integrable random variable is always bounded in ... It can also be shown that any random variable will satisfy clause 2 in Definition 2 ... If any sequence of random variables is dominated by an integrable, non-negative that is, for all ω and n, then the class of random variables is uniformly integrable ...
Maurice Kendall - London School of Economics
... Series, Part 1 Prices" in which he suggested that the movement of shares on the stock market was random i.e ...
Random Permutation
... A random permutation is a random ordering of a set of objects, that is, a permutation-valued random variable ... The use of random permutations is often fundamental to fields that use randomized algorithms such as coding theory, cryptography, and simulation ... A good example of a random permutation is the shuffling of a deck of cards this is ideally a random permutation of the 52 cards ...
Hardware Random Number Generator - Problems - Performance Test
... Hardware random number generators should be constantly monitored for proper operation ... Since many practical designs rely on a hardware source as an input, it will be useful to at least check that the source is still operating ... Noise generator output should be sampled for testing before being passed through a "whitener." Some whitener designs can pass statistical tests with no ...

Famous quotes containing the words generator, number, hardware and/or random:

    He admired the terrible recreative power of his memory. It was only with the weakening of this generator whose fecundity diminishes with age that he could hope for his torture to be appeased. But it appeared that the power to make him suffer of one of Odette’s statements seemed exhausted, then one of these statements on which Swann’s spirit had until then not dwelled, an almost new word relayed the others and struck him with new vigor.
    Marcel Proust (1871–1922)

    As Jerome expanded, its chances for the title, “the toughest little town in the West,” increased and when it was incorporated in 1899 the citizens were able to support the claim by pointing to the number of thick stone shutters on the fronts of all saloons, gambling halls, and other places of business for protection against gunfire.
    —Administration in the State of Ariz, U.S. public relief program (1935-1943)

    A friend of mine spoke of books that are dedicated like this: “To my wife, by whose helpful criticism ...” and so on. He said the dedication should really read: “To my wife. If it had not been for her continual criticism and persistent nagging doubt as to my ability, this book would have appeared in Harper’s instead of The Hardware Age.”
    Brenda Ueland (1891–1985)

    ... the random talk of people who have no chance of immortality and thus can speak their minds out has a setting, often, of lights, streets, houses, human beings, beautiful or grotesque, which will weave itself into the moment for ever.
    Virginia Woolf (1882–1941)