Noncompliance with the terms and spirit of the Hague Convention has been a particularly difficult problem in the practical implementation of the Convention. In 2009, the United States declared Brazil, Chile, Honduras, Greece and Mexico displayed "patterns of non-compliance" or "noncompliance".
The case of Sean Goldman, a four year old boy abducted to Brazil, gained widespread media attention after the abducting mother died during the birth of another child. The mother's family, resident in Brazil, fought Sean's American father in Brazilian court to gain custody over Sean and keep him in the country. Ultimately, though, the Brazilian Supreme Federal Tribunal decided the case constituted child abduction under the terms of the Hague Convention, and had Sean sent back to America to live with his father.
Read more about this topic: Hague Convention On The Civil Aspects Of International Child Abduction
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... concern over what it interprets as material non-compliance, exhorting the United States to take immediate corrective action ...
... In the primary source of interpretation for the Convention, the Explanatory Report, Professor E ... Perez-Vera noted the following "it would seem necessary to underline the fact that the three types of exception to the rule concerning the return of the child must be applied only so far as they go and no further ...