Glycosyltransferase

Glycosyltransferase

Glycosyltransferases (abbre. GTFs, Gtfs) are enzymes (EC 2.4) that are responsible for the biosynthesis of disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. They catalyse the transfer of monosaccharide moieties from activated nucleotide sugar (also known as the "glycosyl donor") to a glycosyl acceptor molecule, usually an alcohol.

The result of glycosyl transfer can be a carbohydrate, glycoside, oligosaccharide, or a polysaccharide. Some glycosyltransferases catalyse transfer to inorganic phosphate or water. Glycosyl transfer can also occur to protein residues, usually to tyrosine, serine, or threonine to give O-linked glycoproteins, or to asparagine to give N-linked glycoproteins. Mannosyl groups may be transferred to tryptophan to generate C-mannosyl tryptophan, which is relatively abundant in eukaryotes. Transferases may also use lipids as an acceptor, forming glycolipids, or even lipid-linked sugar phosphate donors, such as dolichol phosphates.

It is common that sugar nucleotide derivatives are used as glycosyl donors. Glycosyltransferases that use sugar nucleotides are called Leloir enzymes, after Luis F. Leloir, the scientist who discovered the first sugar nucleotide and who received the 1970 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on carbohydrate metabolism.

Glycosyltransferases that utilize non-nucleotide donors, which may be polyprenol pyrophosphates, polyprenol phosphates, sugar-1-phosphates, or sugar-1-pyrophosphates, are termed non-Leloir glycosyltransferases. Such non-Leloir enzymes occur in a variety of organisms.

Read more about Glycosyltransferase:  Mechanism, Classification By Sequence, Structure, Inhibitors, Determinant of Blood Type, Uses

Other articles related to "glycosyltransferases, glycosyltransferase":

Dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide-protein Glycotransferase
... This enzyme belongs to the family of glycosyltransferases, specifically the hexosyltransferases ... use include dolichyldiphosphooligosaccharide-protein glycosyltransferase, asparagine N-glycosyltransferase, dolichyldiphosphooligosaccharide-protein oligosaccharyltransferase ...
Glycosyltransferase - Uses
... Glycosyltransferases have been widely used in the synthesis of glycoconjugates ... In cell-free approaches, the large-scale application of glycosyltransferases for glycoconjugate synthesis has required access to large quantities of the glycosyl donors ... thereby reducing the amount of inhibition caused to the glycosyltransferase of interest - a commonly-observed feature of the nucleotide byproduct ...
Cyclomaltodextrin Glucanotransferase
... This enzyme belongs to the family of glycosyltransferases, specifically the hexosyltransferases ... cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, alpha-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, alpha-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, beta-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, beta-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase ...
Glycogen Branching Enzyme - Nomenclature
... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, to be specific, those glycosyltransferases that transfer hexoses (hexosyltransferases) ... include branching enzyme, amylo-(1,4→1,6)-transglycosylase, Q-enzyme, alpha-glucan-branching glycosyltransferase, amylose isomerase, enzymatic ...
4-alpha-glucanotransferase
... This enzyme belongs to the family of glycosyltransferases, specifically the hexosyltransferases ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 1,4-alpha-D-glucan1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glycosyltransferase ... names in common use include disproportionating enzyme, dextrin glycosyltransferase, D-enzyme, debranching enzyme maltodextrin glycosyltransferase ...