Geophysics

Geophysics ( /dʒiːoʊfɪzɪks/) is the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods. The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth's shape; its gravitational and magnetic fields; its internal structure and composition; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics, the generation of magmas, volcanism and rock formation. However, modern geophysics organizations use a broader definition that includes the hydrological cycle including snow and ice; fluid dynamics of the oceans and the atmosphere; electricity and magnetism in the ionosphere and magnetosphere and solar-terrestrial relations; and analogous problems associated with the Moon and other planets.

Although geophysics was only recognized as a separate discipline in the 19th century, its origins go back to ancient history. The first magnetic compasses date back to the fourth century BC and the first seismoscope was built in 132 BC. Geophysical methods were developed for navigation; Isaac Newton applied his theory of mechanics to the tides and the precession of the equinox; and instruments were developed to measure the Earth's shape, density and gravity field, as well as the components of the water cycle. In the 20th century, geophysical methods were developed for remote exploration of the solid Earth and the ocean, and geophysics played an essential role in the development of the theory of plate tectonics.

Geophysics is applied to societal needs, such as mineral resources, mitigation of natural hazards and environmental protection. Geophysical survey data are used to analyze potential petroleum reservoirs and mineral deposits, locate groundwater, find archaeological relics, determine the thickness of glaciers and soils, and assess sites for environmental remediation.

Read more about Geophysics:  History, Physical Phenomena

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... The 20th century was a revolutionary age for geophysics ... one of the most important for scientific activity of all disciplines of geophysics aurora and airglow, cosmic rays, geomagnetism, gravity, ionospheric physics, longitude and latitude ... Industrial applications of geophysics were developed by demand of petroleum exploration and recovery in the 1920s ...
Lianxing Wen
... He is Professor of Geophysics at the Department of Geosciences, State University of New York at Stony Brook ... where he earned his Bachelor degree in Geophysics in 1988 and Caltech where he earned his Doctorate of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Geophysics in 1998 ...
Computational Geophysics
... Computational geophysics entails rapid numerical computations that help analyses of geophysical data and observations ... In Canada, Computational geophysics is offered as a university major in the form of a BSc (Hon.) with Co-op at Carleton University ... Elsewhere, Rice University has a Center for Computational Geophysics, while Princeton University, the University of Texas and Albert-Ludwigs-Universität have similar programs ...
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