Geography of Haryana

Geography Of Haryana

Haryana, /ˌhɑriˈɑːnə/ (in Hindi हरियाणा, in Punjabi ਹਰਿਆਣਾ ) is a state in India. Constituted in 1966, it is one of two newly created states carved out of the greater Punjab province as a means of creating a stronger national identity. It has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar (VS 1189-1230). It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. Haryana also surrounds Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of Haryana is included in the National Capital Region, the capital of which is Delhi and is administered as a union territory.

Sites in Haryana were part of the Indus Valley and Vedic Civilizations. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic battle of Mahabharata at Kurukshetra mentioned in the Hindu mythology (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna), and the three battles of Panipat. Haryana was administered as part of the Punjab province of British India, and was carved out on linguistic lines as India's 17th state in 1966. Haryana is now a leading contributor to the country's production of foodgrain and milk. Agriculture is the leading occupation for the residents of the state, the flat arable land irrigated by submersible pumps and an extensive canal system. Haryana contributed heavily to the Green Revolution that made India self-sufficient in food production in the 1960s.

Haryana is one of the more socially protracted states in India with rampant caste based discrimination, female foeticide and rapes. In Haryana, caste politics has given insurmountable powers to an ancient and rudimentary social administration system called khap that several law experts deem unconstitutional.

Haryana is also one of the wealthier states of India and has the third highest per capita income in the country at Rs. 67,891, including the largest number of rural crorepatis in India. Haryana is also one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia and its agricultural and manufacturing industry has experienced sustained growth since 1970s. Haryana is India's largest manufacturer of passenger cars, two-wheelers, and tractors. Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India. The city of Gurgaon has rapidly emerged as a major hub for the information technology and automobile industries. Gurgaon is home to Maruti Suzuki, India's largest automobile manufacturer, and Hero MotoCorp, the world's largest manufacturer of two-wheelers. Sonipat, Yamuna Nagar, Panipat, Panchkula and Faridabad are also industrial hubs, with the Panipat Refinery being the second largest refinery in South Asia. There are also long established steel, plywood, paper and textile industries in the state.

Haryana ranks 15th in poverty and 22nd in female literacy. Its sex ratio of 877 per 1000 males puts it at the bottom of the pile at 32nd rank while infant mortality rate is still high at 48 per 1000 infants born ranks it at 28 among states.

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