Genotyping is the process of determining differences in the genetic make-up (genotype) of an individual by examining the individual's DNA sequence using biological assays and comparing it to another individual's sequence or a reference sequence. It reveals the alleles an individual has inherited from their parents. Traditionally genotyping is the use of DNA sequences to define biological populations by use of molecular tools. It does not usually involve defining the genes of an individual.

Current methods of genotyping include restriction fragment length polymorphism identification (RFLPI) of genomic DNA, random amplified polymorphic detection (RAPD) of genomic DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism detection (AFLPD), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) probes, and hybridization to DNA microarrays or beads. Genotyping is important in research of genes and gene variants associated with disease. Due to current technological limitations, almost all genotyping is partial. That is, only a small fraction of an individual’s genotype is determined. New mass-sequencing technologies promise to provide whole-genome genotyping (or whole genome sequencing) in the future.

Genotyping applies to a broad range of individuals, including microorganisms. For example, viruses and bacteria can be genotyped. Genotyping in this context may help in controlling the spreading of pathogens, by tracing the origin of outbreaks. This area is often referred to as molecular epidemiology or forensic microbiology.

Humans can also be genotyped. For example, when testing fatherhood or motherhood, scientists typically only need to examine 10 or 20 genomic regions (like single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs)). That is a tiny fraction of the human genome, which consists of three billion or so nucleotides.

When genotyping transgenic organisms, a single genomic region may be all that needs to be examined to determine the genotype. A single PCR assay is typically enough to genotype a transgenic mouse; the mouse is the mammalian model of choice for much of medical research today.

Other articles related to "genotyping":

High Resolution Melt
... It has advantages over other genotyping technologies, namely It is cost effective vs ... other genotyping technologies such as sequencing and Taqman SNP typing ... This makes it ideal for large scale genotyping projects ...
SNP Genotyping
... SNP genotyping is the measurement of genetic variations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between members of a species ... It is a form of genotyping, which is the measurement of more general genetic variation ... by the furious development of a diverse range of SNP genotyping methods ...
Concordance (genetics) - Genotyping Studies
... In genotyping studies where DNA is directly assayed for positions of variance (see SNP), concordance is a measure of the percentage of SNPs that are measured as identical ... be used as a method of assessing the accuracy of a genotyping assay platform ...
The Centre For Applied Genomics - Core Facilities - Genetic and Statistical Analysis
... Facility shares a manager (of the Genetic Analysis, or genotyping component) with the DNA Sequencing and Synthesis facility ... technologies, including genome-wide (Infinium) and custom content (iSelect and GoldenGate) genotyping, methylation, microRNA, and gene expression microarrays ... It also performs capillary-based genotyping (Applied Biosystems Taqman and SNaPshot, microsatellites), custom genotyping (e.g ...