Genotype

The genotype is the genetic makeup of a cell, an organism, or an individual (i.e. the specific allele makeup of the individual) usually with reference to a specific character under consideration. For instance, the human CFTR gene, which encodes a protein that transports chloride ions across cell membranes, can be dominant (A) as the normal version of the gene, or recessive (a) as a mutated version of the gene. Individuals receiving two recessive alleles will be diagnosed with Cystic fibrosis. It is generally accepted that inherited genotype, transmitted epigenetic factors, and non-hereditary environmental variation contribute to the phenotype of an individual.

Non-hereditary DNA mutations are not classically understood as representing the individual's genotype. Hence, scientists and physicians sometimes talk for example about the (geno)type of a particular cancer, that is the genotype of the disease as distinct from the diseased.

Read more about Genotype:  Genotype and Genomic Sequence, Genotype and Mendelian Inheritance, Genotype and Mathematics, Determining Genotype

Other articles related to "genotype, genotypes":

Genotyping
... differences in the genetic make-up (genotype) of an individual by examining the individual's DNA sequence using biological assays and comparing it to another individual's ... That is, only a small fraction of an individual’s genotype is determined ... may be all that needs to be examined to determine the genotype ...
Determining Genotype
... Genotyping is the process of elucidating the genotype of an individual with a biological assay ... have been associated with cancer cell genotypes for colon, breast and cervical cancer ... typically allow only a fraction of an individual’s genotype to be determined efficiently ...
Telaprevir
... is only indicated for use against hepatitis c genotype 1 viral infections and hasn´t been proven to have an effect on or being safe when used for other genotypes of the virus ... The standard therapy of pegylated interferon and ribavirin is less effective on genotype 1 and telaprevir offers a welcome addition to the treatment of this genotype ...
The Mendelian Randomization Approach
... Importantly, the genotype must only affect the disease status indirectly via its effect on the exposure of interest ... Because genotypes are assigned randomly when passed from parents to offspring during meiosis, if we assume that choice of mate is not associated with genotype (panmixia), then ... of instrumental variables (Thomas Conti 2004, Didelez Sheehan 2007), with genotype acting as an instrument for the exposure of interest ...