Fricative Consonant

Fricative Consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of ; the back of the tongue against the soft palate, in the case of German, the final consonant of Bach; or the side of the tongue against the molars, in the case of Welsh, appearing twice in the name Llanelli. This turbulent airflow is called frication. A particular subset of fricatives are the sibilants. When forming a sibilant, one still is forcing air through a narrow channel, but in addition the tongue is curled lengthwise to direct the air over the edge of the teeth. English, and are examples of this.

Two other terms are spirant and strident, but their usage is less standardized. The former can be used synonymously with "fricative", or (as in e.g. Uralic linguistics) to refer to non-sibilant fricatives only. The latter can be used synonymously with "sibilant", but some authors include also labiodental and/or uvular fricatives in the class.

Read more about Fricative Consonant:  Sibilant Fricatives, Central Non-sibilant Fricatives, Lateral Fricatives, Symbols Used For Both Fricatives and Approximants, Pseudo-fricatives, Languages

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Navajo Phonology - Consonants - Velar /ɣ/, Palatal /j/
... like /ɣ/ are often very weak fricatives somewhere between a typical fricative constriction (e.g ... The following verb stem has different velar allophones of the stem-initial consonant Underlying Phonetic Orthography Gloss /ɣàʃ/ -ghash "make ... to a palatal articulation much like the weakly fricative realization of /j/ that occurs before back vowels ...
Fricative Consonant - Languages
... H is not a fricative in English (see /h/) ... The other fricatives come in voiceless-voiced pairs /f v, θ ð, s z, ʃ ʒ/ ... Ubykh may be the language with the most fricatives (29 not including /h/), some of which do not have good symbols or diacritics in the IPA ...