Unfree labour (or unfree labor in American English) is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), lawful compulsion, or other extreme hardship to themselves or to members of their families.
Unfree labour includes all forms of slavery, and related institutions (e.g. debt slavery, serfdom, corvée and labour camps). Many of these forms of work may be covered by the term forced labour, which is defined by the International Labour Organization (ILO) as all involuntary work or service exacted under the menace of a penalty.
However, under the Forced Labour Convention the term forced or compulsory labour shall not include:
- any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character;
- any work or service which forms part of the normal civic obligations of the citizens of a fully self-governing country;
- any work or service exacted from any person as a consequence of a conviction in a court of law, provided that the said work or service is carried out under the supervision and control of a public authority and that the said person is not hired to or placed at the disposal of private individuals, companies or associations;
- any work or service exacted in cases of emergency, that is to say, in the event of war or of a calamity or threatened calamity, such as fire, flood, famine, earthquake, violent epidemic or epizootic diseases, invasion by animal, insect or vegetable pests, and in general any circumstance that would endanger the existence or the well-being of the whole or part of the population;
- minor communal services of a kind which, being performed by the members of the community in the direct interest of the said community, can therefore be considered as normal civic obligations incumbent upon the members of the community, provided that the members of the community or their direct representatives shall have the right to be consulted in regard to the need for such services.
Other articles related to "forced labor, labor, forced":
... South and Southeast Asia trafficked for the purpose of forced labor ... servants, but some are subjected to conditions of forced labor, including unlawful withholding of passports, restrictions on movement, non-payment of wages, threats, and physical or sexual abuse ... protections provided to workers under Jordanian labor law do not apply either to domestic or agricultural laborers, leaving them highly vulnerable to abuse by exploitative employers ...
... ILO Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No ...
... Elements of French colonial policy, such as the indigénat and forced labor, were abused ... by their people as war-related demands for agricultural production and forced labor besieged them ...
... numerous components such as prisons (formerly referred to as laogai), re-education through labor or laojiao camps, ankang mental health facilities, and juvenile detention centers ... component, which Wu's non-profit research organization calls "the most extensive system of forced labor camps in the world." ... Prisoners in these camps are said to undergo forced labor and thought reform, and the system has attracted widespread criticism from the international ...
... Masanjia Labor Camp (马三家劳教所) is in Masanjia Town in Yuhong district in the Liaoning province of China ... was opened under China's re-education through labor, or 'laojiao' policy ... the exact number of Falun Gong followers held in re-education through labor camps ...
Famous quotes containing the words labor and/or forced:
“Having behind us the producing masses of this nation and the world, supported by the commercial interests, the labor interests, and the toilers everywhere, we will answer their demand for a gold standard by saying to them: You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.”
—Administration in the State of Neva, U.S. public relief program (1935-1943)
“How it infuriates a bigot, when he is forced to drag out his dark convictions!”
—Logan Pearsall Smith (18651946)