Finishing (textiles) - Special Finishes For Natural Fibers

Special Finishes For Natural Fibers

Bio-polishing removes the protruding fibers of a fabric through the action of an enzyme. Enzymes, such as cellulase for cotton, selectively remove protruding fibers. These enzymes may be deactivated by an increase in temperature.

Mercerisation makes woven cotton fabric stronger, more lustrous, to have better dye affinity, and to be less abrasive.

Raising lifts the surface fibers to improve the softness and warmth, as in flannelette.

Peach Finish subjects the fabric (either cotton or its synthetic blends) to emery wheels, making the surface velvet-like. This is a special finish used mostly in garments.

Fulling or waulking is a method of thickening woollen material to make it more water-resistant.

Decatising to bring dimension stability to woollen fabrics.

Calendering makes one or both surfaces of the fabric smooth and shiny. The fabric is passed to through hot, fast-moving stainless steel cylinders.

Sanforizing or Pre-shrinking prevents a fabric and the produced garment from shrinking after production. This is also a mechanical finish, acquired by feeding the fabric between a roller and rubber blanket, in such a way the rubber blanket compresses the weft threads and imparts compressive shrinkage.

Crease-Resist finish or "wash-and-wear" or "wrinkle-free" finishes are achieved by the addition of a chemical resin finish that makes the fiber take on a quality similar to that of synthetic fibers.

Anti-microbial finish causes a fabric to inhibit the growth of microbes. The humid and warm environment found in textile fibers encourages the growth of the microbes. Infestation by microbes can cause cross-infection by pathogens and the development of odor where the fabric is worn next to skin. In addition, stains and loss of fiber quality of textile substrates can also take place. With an aim to protect the skin of the wearer and the textile substrate itself, an anti-microbial finish is applied to textile materials.

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