Eucalyptus (computing) - Software Architecture

Software Architecture

Eucalyptus commands can manage either Amazon or Eucalyptus instances. Users can also move instances between a Eucalyptus private cloud and the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud to create a hybrid cloud. Hardware virtualization isolates applications from computer hardware details.

Eucalyptus uses the terminology:

  • Images - An image is a fixed collection of software modules, system software, application software, and configuration information that is started from a known baseline (immutable/fixed). When bundled and uploaded to the Eucalyptus cloud, this becomes a Eucalyptus machine image (EMI).
  • Instances - When an image is put to use, it is called an instance. The configuration is executed at runtime, and the Cloud Controller decides where the image will run, and storage and networking is attached to meet resource needs.
  • IP addressing - Eucalyptus instances can have public and private IP addresses. An IP address is assigned to an instance when the instance is created from an image. For instances that require a persistent IP address, such as a web-server, Eucalyptus supplies elastic IP addresses. These are pre-allocated by the Eucalyptus cloud to an instance. An elastic IP persists whether the instance is running or not. In other words, if you stop an instance and restart it hours, days, or weeks later, the instance still binds to the same elastic IP address it was assigned to.
  • Security - TCP/IP security groups share a common set of firewall rules. This is a mechanism to firewall off an instance using IP address and port block/allow functionality. At TCP/IP layer 2 instances are isolated. If this were not present, a user could manipulate the networking of instances and gain access to neighboring instances violating the basic cloud tenet of instance isolation and separation.
  • Networking - There are three networking modes. In Managed Mode Eucalyptus manages a local network of instances, including security groups and IP addresses. In System Mode, Eucalyptus assigns a MAC address and attaches the instance's network interface to the physical network through the Node Controller's bridge. System Mode does not offer elastic IP addresses, security groups, or VM isolation. In Static Mode, Eucalyptus assigns IP addresses to instances. Static Mode does not offer elastic IPs, security groups, or VM isolation.
  • Access Control - A user of Eucalyptus is assigned an identity, and identities can be grouped together for access control.

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