Epigenetics - Epigenetic Effects in Humans - Cancer and Developmental Abnormalities - DNA Methylation in Cancer

DNA Methylation in Cancer

DNA methylation is an important regulator of gene transcription and a large body of evidence has demonstrated that aberrant DNA methylation is associated with unscheduled gene silencing, and the genes with high levels of 5-methylcytosine in their promoter region are transcriptionally silent. DNA methylation is essential during embryonic development, and in somatic cells, patterns of DNA methylation are in general transmitted to daughter cells with a high fidelity. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns have been associated with a large number of human malignancies and found in two distinct forms: hypermethylation and hypomethylation compared to normal tissue. Hypermethylation is one of the major epigenetic modifications that repress transcription via promoter region of tumour suppressor genes. Hypermethylation typically occurs at CpG islands in the promoter region and is associated with gene inactivation. Global hypomethylation has also been implicated in the development and progression of cancer through different mechanisms.

Read more about this topic:  Epigenetics, Epigenetic Effects in Humans, Cancer and Developmental Abnormalities

Other articles related to "dna methylation, methylation, dna":

Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation - Downstream Bioinformatics Analysis
... The DNA methylation level estimations can be confounded by varying densities of methylated CpG sites across the genome when observing data generated by MeDIP ... developed a tool to estimate absolute methylation levels from data generated by MeDIP by modeling the density of methylated CpG sites ... This tool is called Bayesian tool for methylation analysis (Batman) ...
Small Nucleolar RNA Sno Z7/sno R77
... Most of the members of the box C/D family function in directing site-specific 2'-O-methylation of substrate RNAs ... snoZ7 RNA guides the methylation of 25S rRNA position A1372, whereas SnoR77Y guides the methylation of 18S rRNA at position U580 ...
Somatic Evolution In Cancer - Somatic Evolution in Progression - Somatic Evolution By Epigenetics
... silencing or expression of genes by changes in the methylation of CG pairs of nucleotides in the promoter regions of the genes ... These methylation patterns are copied to the new chromosomes when cells replicate their genomes and so methylation alterations are heritable and subject to natural selection ... Methylation changes are thought to occur more frequently than mutations in the DNA, and so may account for many of the changes during neoplastic progression (the process by which normal tissue becomes cancerous), in ...
Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation - Background
... DNA methylation, referring to the reversible methylation of the 5 position of cytosine by methyltransferases, is a major epigenetic modification in ... The modification may also occur at other sites, but methylation at either of these sites can repress gene expression by either interfering with the binding of ... studies have largely fueled the effort in understanding the role of DNA methylation ...

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