Causes of Delayed or Absent Development
- Unweatherable parent materials - sand, iron oxide, aluminium oxide, kaolinite clay.
- Erosion - common on shoulder slopes; other kinds also important.
- Deposition - continuous, repeated deposition of new parent materials by water, wind, colluvium, mudflows, other means.
- Flooding or saturation.
- Cold climate - must not be sufficiently cold in winter for permafrost.
- Dry climate.
- Shallow to bedrock - may be rock resistant to weathering, such as quartzite or ironstone.
- Toxic parent materials - serpentine soil, mine spoils, sulfidic clays.
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