The area has been occupied since at least 1437 BC by a succession of peoples beginning with Hittites, Lydians, Persians, Greeks and Romans. The ruins of the ancient Phrygian and Byzantine city of Amorium (fr) lie about 12 km away from Emirdağ.
Emirdağ used to be one of the four main Byzantine cities in Anatolia, hometown of the Byzantine Amorian dynasty (Michael II, Theophilus and Michael III), but was completely destroyed and its inhabitants massacred in 838-845 by the Abbassid Caliph Al-Mu'tasim.
The area was settled by Turkmen from 1068 onwards and particularly following the battle of nearby Bolvadin, between the Byzantines and the Seljuk Turks. Later further waves of Turkmen followed including the Dulkadirids and Yörük nomads were settled here by the Ottoman Empire. Until the foundation of the Turkish Republic the town was named Aziziye in honour of Sultan Abdülâziz.
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