Electrons

Some articles on electrons, electron:

History - The Aufbau Principle in The Old Quantum Theory
... The orbitals of lower energy are filled in first with the electrons and only then the orbitals of high energy are filled ... Each added electron is subject to the electric field created by the positive charge of the atomic nucleus and the negative charge of other electrons that are ... principal quantum number n, this is not true for the outer electrons of other atoms ...
Betatron
... by Donald Kerst at the University of Illinois in 1940 to accelerate electrons, but the concepts ultimately originate from Rolf Widerøe, whose development ... An alternating current in the primary coils accelerates electrons in the vacuum around a circular path ... was the first important machine for producing high energy electrons ...
Exchange Force - Exchange Interaction and Quantum State Symmetry
... force, it is sometimes used as a synonym for the exchange interaction, between electrons which arises from a combination of the identity of particles, exchange symmetry, and the electrostatic force ... To illustrate the concept of exchange interaction, any two electrons, for example, in the universe are considered indistinguishable particles, and so ... Thus, it so happens that all electrons are fermions, since they have spin 1/2 ...
Exchange Interactions Between Localized Electron Magnetic Moments - Effects of Exchange
... If Jab is positive the exchange energy favors electrons with parallel spins this is a primary cause of ferromagnetism in materials in which the electrons are considered localized in the ... If Jab is negative, the interaction favors electrons with antiparallel spins, potentially causing antiferromagnetism ... Indeed, in general, the direct magnetic interaction between a pair of electrons (due to their electron magnetic moments) is negligibly small compared to this electric interaction ...
Cyclobutadiene
... antiaromatic by Hückel's rule, because its ring has 4 π-electrons, and 4 is not twice an odd number ... thought to be caused by the metal atom providing 2 more electrons to the system ... normal (1.464 vs expected 1.34) The pi electron energy of cyclobutadiene is higher than that of its open-chain counterpart, 1,3-butadiene, and it is therefore said to be anti-aromatic rather than aromatic ...

Famous quotes containing the word electrons:

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