Electron Configuration - Notation


See also: Atomic orbital

Physicists and chemists use a standard notation to indicate the electron configurations of atoms and molecules. For atoms, the notation consists of a sequence of atomic orbital labels (e.g. for phosphorus the sequence 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p) with the number of electrons assigned to each orbital (or set of orbitals sharing the same label) placed as a superscript. For example, hydrogen has one electron in the s-orbital of the first shell, so its configuration is written 1s1. Lithium has two electrons in the 1s-subshell and one in the (higher-energy) 2s-subshell, so its configuration is written 1s2 2s1 (pronounced "one-s-two, two-s-one"). Phosphorus (atomic number 15) is as follows: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3.

For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used, since all but the last few subshells are identical to those of one or another of the noble gases. Phosphorus, for instance, differs from neon (1s2 2s2 2p6) only by the presence of a third shell. Thus, the electron configuration of neon is pulled out, and phosphorus is written as follows: 3s2 3p3. This convention is useful as it is the electrons in the outermost shell which most determine the chemistry of the element.

The order of writing the orbitals is not completely fixed: some sources group all orbitals with the same value of n together, while other sources (as here) follow the order given by Madelung's rule. Hence the electron configuration of iron can be written as 3d6 4s2 (keeping the 3d-electrons with the 3s- and 3p-electrons which are implied by the configuration of argon) or as 4s2 3d6 (following the Aufbau principle, see below).

The superscript 1 for a singly occupied orbital is not compulsory. It is quite common to see the letters of the orbital labels (s, p, d, f) written in an italic or slanting typeface, although the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommends a normal typeface (as used here). The choice of letters originates from a now-obsolete system of categorizing spectral lines as "sharp", "principal", "diffuse" and "fundamental" (or "fine"), based on their observed fine structure: their modern usage indicates orbitals with an azimuthal quantum number, l, of 0, 1, 2 or 3 respectively. After "f", the sequence continues alphabetically "g", "h", "i"... (l = 4, 5, 6...), skipping "j", although orbitals of these types are rarely required.

The electron configurations of molecules are written in a similar way, except that molecular orbital labels are used instead of atomic orbital labels (see below).

Read more about this topic:  Electron Configuration

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