# Electrical Resistance and Conductance

Electrical Resistance And Conductance

The electrical resistance of an electrical element is the opposition to the passage of an electric current through that element; the inverse quantity is electrical conductance, the ease at which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the mechanical notion of friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (Ω), while electrical conductance is measured in siemens (S).

An object of uniform cross section has a resistance proportional to its resistivity and length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area. All materials show some resistance, except for superconductors, which have a resistance of zero.

The resistance (R) of an object is defined as the ratio of voltage across it (V) to current through it (I), while the conductance (G) is the inverse:

For a wide variety of materials and conditions, V and I are directly proportional to each other, and therefore R and G are constant (although they can depend on other factors like temperature or strain). This proportionality is called Ohm's law, and materials that satisfy it are called "Ohmic" materials.

In other cases, such as a diode or battery, V and I are not directly proportional, or in other words the I–V curve is not a straight line through the origin, and Ohm's law does not hold. In this case, resistance and conductance are less useful concepts, and more difficult to define. The ratio V/I is sometimes still useful, and is referred to as a "chordal resistance" or "static resistance", as it corresponds to the inverse slope of a chord between the origin and an I–V curve. In other situations, the derivative may be most useful; this is called the "differential resistance".

Read more about Electrical Resistance And Conductance:  Introduction, Conductors and Resistors, Ohm's Law, Relation To Resistivity and Conductivity, Measuring Resistance, Typical Resistances, Static and Differential Resistance, Energy Dissipation and Joule Heating, Superconductivity

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... Superconductors are materials that have exactly zero resistance and infinite conductance, because they can have V=0 and I≠0 ... This also means there is no joule heating, or in other words no dissipation of electrical energy ...

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