Microarray technology evolved from Southern blotting, where fragmented DNA is attached to a substrate and then probed with a known DNA sequence. The first reported use of this approach was the analysis of 378 arrayed lysed bacterial colonies each harboring a different sequence which were assayed in multiple replicas for expression of the genes in multiple normal and tumor tissue. This was expanded to an analysis of more than 4000 human sequences with computer driven scanning and image processing for quantitative analysis of the sequences in human colonic tumors and normal tissue and then to comparison of colonic tissues at different genetic risk. The use of a collection of distinct DNAs in arrays for expression profiling was also described in 1987, and the arrayed DNAs were used to identify genes whose expression is modulated by interferon. These early gene arrays were made by spotting cDNAs onto filter paper with a pin-spotting device. The use of miniaturized microarrays for gene expression profiling was first reported in 1995, and a complete eukaryotic genome (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on a microarray was published in 1997.
Read more about this topic: DNA Microarray
Other articles related to "history":
... History of Charles XII, King of Sweden (1731) The Age of Louis XIV (1751) The Age of Louis XV (1746–1752) Annals of the Empire – Charlemagne, A.D ... II (1754) Essay on the Manners of Nations (or 'Universal History') (1756) History of the Russian Empire Under Peter the Great (Vol ... II 1763) History of the Parliament of Paris (1769) ...
... generally believed that gambling in some form or another has been seen in almost every society in history ... and Romans to Napoleon's France and Elizabethan England, much of history is filled with stories of entertainment based on games of chance ... In American history, early gambling establishments were known as saloons ...
... The Skeptical School of early Chinese history, started by Gu Jiegang in the 1920s, was the first group of scholars within China to seriously question the traditional story of its early history "the ... early Chinese history is a tale told and retold for generations, during which new elements were added to the front end" ...
... The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or ...
... The breakup of Al-Andalus into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative ... The capture of the strategically central city of Toledo in 1085 marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms ...
Famous quotes containing the word history:
“Gossip is charming! History is merely gossip. But scandal is gossip made tedious by morality.”
—Oscar Wilde (18541900)
“A man acquainted with history may, in some respect, be said to have lived from the beginning of the world, and to have been making continual additions to his stock of knowledge in every century.”
—David Hume (17111776)
“False history gets made all day, any day,
the truth of the new is never on the news
False history gets written every day
the lesbian archaeologist watches herself
sifting her own life out from the shards shes piecing,
asking the clay all questions but her own.”
—Adrienne Rich (b. 1929)