Dinosoor - Classification - Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The following is a simplified classification of dinosaur groups based on their evolutionary relationships, and organized based on the list of Mesozoic dinosaur species provided by Holtz (2008). A more detailed version can be found at Dinosaur classification. The cross (†) is used to signify groups with no living members.

  • Dinosauria
  • Saurischia ("lizard-hipped"; includes Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha)
  • Theropoda (all bipedal; most were carnivorous)
  • †Herrerasauria (early bipedal carnivores)
  • †Coelophysoidea (small, early theropods; includes Coelophysis and close relatives)
  • †Dilophosauridae (early crested and carnivorous theropods)
  • †Ceratosauria (generally elaborately horned, the dominant southern carnivores of the Cretaceous)
  • Tetanurae ("stiff tails"; includes most theropods)
  • †Megalosauroidea (early group of large carnivores including the semi-aquatic spinosaurids)
  • †Carnosauria (Allosaurus and close relatives, like Carcharodontosaurus)
  • Coelurosauria (feathered theropods, with a range of body sizes and niches)
  • †Compsognathidae (common early coelurosaurs with reduced forelimbs)
  • †Tyrannosauridae (Tyrannosaurus and close relatives; had reduced forelimbs)
  • †Ornithomimosauria ("ostrich-mimics"; mostly toothless; carnivores to possible herbivores)
  • †Alvarezsauroidea (small insectivores with reduced forelimbs each bearing one enlarged claw)
  • Maniraptora ("hand snatchers"; had long, slender arms and fingers)
  • †Therizinosauria (bipedal herbivores with large hand claws and small heads)
  • †Oviraptorosauria (mostly toothless; their diet and lifestyle are uncertain)
  • †Archaeopterygidae (small, winged theropods or primitive birds)
  • †Deinonychosauria (small- to medium-sized; bird-like, with a distinctive toe claw)
  • Avialae (modern birds and extinct relatives)
  • †Scansoriopterygidae (small primitive avialans with long third fingers)
  • †Omnivoropterygidae (large, early short-tailed avialans)
  • †Confuciusornithidae (small toothless avialans)
  • †Enantiornithes (primitive tree-dwelling, flying avialans)
  • Euornithes (advanced flying birds)
  • †Yanornithiformes (toothed Cretaceous Chinese birds)
  • †Hesperornithes (specialized aquatic diving birds)
  • Aves (modern, beaked birds and their extinct relatives)
  • Sauropodomorpha (herbivores with small heads, long necks, long tails)
  • †Guaibasauridae (small, primitive, omnivorous sauropodomorphs)
  • †Plateosauridae (primitive, strictly bipedal "prosauropods")
  • †Riojasauridae (small, primitive sauropodomorphs)
  • †Massospondylidae (small, primitive sauropodomorphs)
  • †Sauropoda (very large and heavy, usually over 15 meters (49 feet) long; quadrupedal)
  • †Vulcanodontidae (primitive sauropods with pillar-like limbs)
  • †Eusauropoda ("true sauropods")
  • †Cetiosauridae ("whale reptiles")
  • †Turiasauria (European group of Jurassic and Cretaceous sauropods)
  • †Neosauropoda ("new sauropods")
  • †Diplodocoidea (skulls and tails elongated; teeth typically narrow and pencil-like)
  • †Macronaria (boxy skulls; spoon- or pencil-shaped teeth)
  • †Brachiosauridae (long-necked, long-armed macronarians)
  • †Titanosauria (diverse; stocky, with wide hips; most common in the Late Cretaceous of southern continents)
  • Ornithischia ("bird-hipped"; diverse bipedal and quadrupedal herbivores)
  • †Heterodontosauridae (small basal ornithopod herbivores/omnivores with prominent canine-like teeth)
  • †Thyreophora (armored dinosaurs; mostly quadrupeds)
  • Ankylosauria (scutes as primary armor; some had club-like tails)
  • Stegosauria (spikes and plates as primary armor)
  • †Neornithischia ("new ornithischians")
  • Ornithopoda (various sizes; bipeds and quadrupeds; evolved a method of chewing using skull flexibility and numerous teeth)
  • †Marginocephalia (characterized by a cranial growth)
  • †Pachycephalosauria (bipeds with domed or knobby growth on skulls)
  • Ceratopsia (quadrupeds with frills; many also had horns)

Read more about this topic:  Dinosoor, Classification

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