Lebel was elected to the Canadian House of Commons on September 17, 2007, in the Roberval—Lac-Saint-Jean by-election, 2007. He is a member of the Conservative Party.
On October 30, 2008, he was appointed to Stephen Harper's cabinet as Minister of the (Economic Development Agency of Canada for the Regions of Quebec). After the May 2011 General election, Lebel was promoted to Minister of Transport
Lebel was a member of the sovereigntist Bloc Québécois, between July 23, 1993, and April 28, 2001.