The Czech Republic (i/ˈtʃɛk/ CHEK; Czech: Česká republika, short form Česko ) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the north. Its capital and largest city, with 1.3 million inhabitants, is Prague. The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Moravia and a small part of Silesia.
The Czech state, formerly known as Bohemia, was formed in the late 9th century as a small duchy around Prague, at that time under the dominance of the powerful Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power was transferred from Moravia to Bohemia, under the Přemyslids. Since 1002 it was formally recognized as part of Holy Roman Empire. In 1212 the duchy was raised to a kingdom and during the rule of Přemyslid dukes/kings and their successors, the Luxembourgs, the country reached its greatest territorial extent (13th–14th century). During the Hussite wars the kingdom faced economic embargoes and crusades from all over Europe. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg monarchy as one of its three principal parts, alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary. The Bohemian Revolt (1618–20) led to the further centralization of the monarchy including forced recatholization and Germanization. During radical reforms in the 18th century the Bohemian Crown was even de facto abolished (1749). In the 19th century the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia which was formed in 1918, following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I.
After the Munich Agreement, Polish annexation of Zaolzie and German occupation of Czechoslovakia and the consequent disillusion with the Western response and gratitude for the liberation of the major portion of Czechoslovakia by the Red Army, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the majority in the 1946 elections. In the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a communist-ruled state. In 1968, the increasing dissatisfaction culminated in attempts to reform the communist regime. The events, known as the Prague Spring of 1968, ended with an invasion by the armies of the Warsaw Pact countries (with the exception of Romania); the troops remained in the country until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved into its constituent states, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
The Czech Republic is the first former member of the Comecon to achieve the status of a developed country according to the World Bank. In addition, the country has the highest human development in Central and Eastern Europe, ranking as a "Very High Human Development" nation. It is also ranked as the third most peaceful country in Europe and most democratic and healthy (by infant mortality) country in the region. It is a pluralist multi-party parliamentary representative democracy, a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Visegrád Group.
Other articles related to "czech republic":
... Brazil 2–0 Mexico 1962 FIFA World Cup group stage 1962-05-31 Czech Republic 1–0 Spain 1962 FIFA World Cup group stage 1962-06-02 Brazil 0–0 Czech Republic 1962 FIFA World Cup group stage 1962-06-03 ...
... o o xo xxo 1.92 Q, SB 13 B Elena Meuti Italy o o xxo xo xxo 1.92 Q, PB 14 A Romana Dubnova Czech Republic o o xxo o xxx 1.90 15 B Marta Mendía Spain o o xo xxo xxx 1.90 SB 16 ...
2004 New Jersey Devils 1995, 2000, 2003 Anaheim Ducks 2007 Czech Republic ! Jagr, JaromirJaromír Jágr 02005-05-1515 May 2005 Czech Republic 1998 Czech Republic 2005, 2010 ...
... See also Sport in the Czech Republic, Czech Republic men's national ice hockey team, and Czech Republic national football team Sports play a part in the life of ... The two leading sports in the Czech Republic are ice hockey and association football, both drawing the largest attention of both the media and supporters ... Tennis is also a very big sport in the Czech Republic ...
Famous quotes containing the words republic and/or czech:
“While the Republic has already acquired a history world-wide, America is still unsettled and unexplored. Like the English in New Holland, we live only on the shores of a continent even yet, and hardly know where the rivers come from which float our navy.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“Im neither Czech nor Slovak ... Im still trying to figure out who I am. I think Im Jewish. But first I want to be human.”
—Natasha Dudinska (b. c. 1967)