Cross-cultural competence refers to the knowledge, skills, and affect/motivation that enable individuals to adapt effectively in cross-cultural environments. Cross-cultural competence is defined here as an individual capability that contributes to intercultural effectiveness regardless of the particular intersection of cultures. Although some aspects of cognition, behavior, or affect may be particularly relevant in a specific country or region, evidence suggests that a core set of competencies enables adaptation to any culture (Hammer, 1987).
Cross-cultural competence is not an end in itself, but is a set of variables that contribute to intercultural effectiveness. Whereas previous models have tended to emphasize subjective outcomes, by focusing primarily on adjustment, outcomes of interest here include both subjective and objective outcomes. Objective outcomes, such as job performance, have been addressed in previous research, but to a lesser degree than the subjective outcomes. Research indicates that the outcomes are linked, with personal and interpersonal adjustment linked to work adjustment, which has in turn been linked with job performance (Shay & Baack, 2006). However, these relationships are small, and some research has demonstrated that subjective outcomes can diverge from objective outcomes (Kealey, 1989), with expatriates sometimes showing relatively poor adjustment but high effectiveness in their organizational role.
Other articles related to "competence":
... cross cultural competence cultural competence intercultural competence intercultural effectiveness ...
... International students also face this issue they have a choice of modifying their cultural boundaries and adapting to the culture around them or holding on to their native culture and surrounding themselves with people from their own country ... The students who decide to hold on to their native culture are those who experience the most problems in their university life and who encounter frequent culture shocks ...
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“I duly acknowledge that I have gone through a long life, with fewer circumstances of affliction than are the lot of most men. Uninterrupted health, a competence for every reasonable want, usefulness to my fellow-citizens, a good portion of their esteem, no complaint against the world which has sufficiently honored me, and above all, a family which has blessed me by their affections, and never by their conduct given me a moments pain.”
—Thomas Jefferson (17431826)