In subsidizing top trophic levels, effects may also be felt at all lower trophic levels in a phenomenon known as a trophic cascade. An example of a trophic cascade that also acted as a cross-boundary subsidy is illustrated in a study by Knight et al. (2005) in which changes in the trophic structure of one ecosystem resulted in an effect that cascaded to the adjacent ecosystem. In ponds containing fish, dragonfly larvae were kept to a minimum by fish predation. The resulting low density of adult dragonfly predators led to a high density of bee pollinators. With fish present in adjacent ponds, bees were able to pollinate more flowers in the adjacent upland ecosystem than they were when fish were absent. The dragonfly population could be thought of as subsidized by the absence of fish predation. That subsidy was then transferred across the pond-upland boundary by adult dragonfly movement to affect the interaction between bee pollinators and plants.
... The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments ... a pathway in the microbial food web where DOC is returned to higher trophic levels via the incorporation into bacterial biomass ... Aquatic toxicology Benthos Bioluminescence Biomass Cascade effect Colored dissolved organic matter Dead zone Ecohydrology Eutrophication Fisheries science Food chain Food web GIS and ...
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“End of tomorrow.
Dont try to start the car or look deeper
Into the eternal wimpling of the sky: luster
On luster, transparency floated onto the topmost layer
Until the whole thing overflows like a silver
Wedding cake or Christmas tree, in a cascade of tears.”
—John Ashbery (b. 1927)