Corrections

In criminal justice, particularly in North America, correction, corrections, and correctional, are umbrella terms describing a variety of functions typically carried out by government agencies, and involving the punishment, treatment, and supervision of persons who have been convicted of crimes. These functions commonly include imprisonment, parole and probation. A typical correctional institution is a prison. A correctional system, also known as a penal system, thus refers to a network of agencies that administer a jurisdiction's prisons and community-based programs like parole and probation boards; this system is part of the larger criminal justice system, which additionally includes police, prosecution and courts. Jurisdictions throughout Canada and the US have ministries or departments, respectively, of corrections, correctional services, or similarly named agencies.

Corrections is also the name of a field of academic study concerned with the theories, policies, and programs pertaining to the practice of corrections. Its object of study includes personnel training and management as well as the experiences of those on the other side of the fence — the unwilling subjects of the correctional process. Stohr and colleagues write that "Earlier scholars were more honest, calling what we now call corrections by the name penology, which means the study of punishment for crime."

The terminology change in US academia from "penology" to "corrections" occurred in the 1950s and 1960s, and it was driven by a new philosophy emphasizing rehabilitation. It was accompanied by concrete changes in some prisons, like giving more privileges to inmates, and attempting to instill a more communal atmosphere. At least nominally, most prisons became correctional institutions, and guards became correctional officers. Although the corrections-related terminology continued thereafter in US correctional practice, the philosophical view on offenders' treatment took an opposite turn in the 1980s, when the "get tough" program was labeled by academics as "The New Penology".

Read more about Corrections:  Sentences, Theories

Other articles related to "corrections":

St. Mary's County Sheriff's Office (Maryland) - Divisions - Corrections
... The Corrections Division is responsible for the security, custody and control of adults sentenced or awaiting trial in the Detention Center ...
Corrections (disambiguation)
... Corrections is society's handling of persons after their conviction of a criminal offense ... Corrections may also refer to Corrections (film), a 2008 Australian short The Corrections, a 2001 novel by Jonathan Franzen The Corrections (band), a British rock band ...
Law Enforcement In New Jersey - Corrections Agencies
... New Jersey Department of Corrections Atlantic County Department of Public Safety Bergen County Corrections Division Burlington County Department of Corrections Camden County Department of ...
South Carolina Department Of Corrections
... The South Carolina Department of Corrections (SCDC) is the agency responsible for corrections in the U.S ...
Corrections - Theories
... Many facilities operating in the United States adhere to particular correctional theories ... Although often heavily modified, these theories determine the nature of the facilities' design and security operations ...