# Constellation Diagram

A constellation diagram is a representation of a signal modulated by a digital modulation scheme such as quadrature amplitude modulation or phase-shift keying. It displays the signal as a two-dimensional scatter diagram in the complex plane at symbol sampling instants. In a more abstract sense, it represents the possible symbols that may be selected by a given modulation scheme as points in the complex plane. Measured constellation diagrams can be used to recognize the type of interference and distortion in a signal.

By representing a transmitted symbol as a complex number and modulating a cosine and sine carrier signal with the real and imaginary parts (respectively), the symbol can be sent with two carriers on the same frequency. They are often referred to as quadrature carriers. A coherent detector is able to independently demodulate these carriers. This principle of using two independently modulated carriers is the foundation of quadrature modulation. In pure phase modulation, the phase of the modulating symbol is the phase of the carrier itself.

As the symbols are represented as complex numbers, they can be visualized as points on the complex plane. The real and imaginary axes are often called the in phase, or I-axis and the quadrature, or Q-axis. Plotting several symbols in a scatter diagram produces the constellation diagram. The points on a constellation diagram are called constellation points. They are a set of modulation symbols which comprise the modulation alphabet.

Also a diagram of the ideal positions, signal space diagram, in a modulation scheme can be called a constellation diagram. In this sense the constellation is not a scatter diagram but a representation of the scheme itself. The example shown here is for 8-PSK, which has also been given a Gray coded bit assignment.