A cognitive bias is a pattern of deviation in judgment that occurs in particular situations, which may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality. Implicit in the concept of a "pattern of deviation" is a standard of comparison with what is normatively expected; this may be the judgment of people outside those particular situations, or may be a set of independently verifiable facts. A continually evolving list of cognitive biases has been identified over the last six decades of research on human judgment and decision-making in cognitive science, social psychology, and behavioral economics.
Some cognitive biases are presumably adaptive, for example, because they lead to more effective actions in a given context or enable faster decisions when timeliness is more valuable than accuracy (heuristics). Others presumably result from a lack of appropriate mental mechanisms (bounded rationality), or simply from a limited capacity for information processing.
Other articles related to "cognitive bias, cognitive, bias":
... Research into cognitive biases reveals a number of ways in which humans fall short of unbiased rationality, many of which affect the prediction of existential risks ... For example, availability bias may make people underestimate the danger of existential risks, as clearly no-one has any experience of them ... Equally, hindsight bias makes past events appear to have been more predictable than they actually were, leading to overconfidence in our ability to predict the future ...
... Cognitive biases are also related to the persistence of superstition, to large social issues such as prejudice, and they also work as a hindrance in the acceptance of scientific ...
... Brady’s Brainteaser The Accidental Prosecutor and Cognitive Bias, 57 CASE W. 575 (2007) Prosecutorial Passion, Cognitive Bias, and Plea Bargaining, 91 MARQUETTE L. 183 (2007) Neutralizing Cognitive Bias An Invitation to Prosecutors, 2 N.Y.U ...
Famous quotes containing the words bias and/or cognitive:
“The solar system has no anxiety about its reputation, and the credit of truth and honesty is as safe; nor have I any fear that a skeptical bias can be given by leaning hard on the sides of fate, of practical power, or of trade, which the doctrine of Faith cannot down-weigh.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)
“Realism holds that things known may continue to exist unaltered when they are not known, or that things may pass in and out of the cognitive relation without prejudice to their reality, or that the existence of a thing is not correlated with or dependent upon the fact that anybody experiences it, perceives it, conceives it, or is in any way aware of it.”
—William Pepperell Montague (18421910)