### Some articles on *surface, surfaces, closed surface, closed*:

Differential Geometry Of Surfaces - Global Differential Geometry of Surfaces

... the characterisation of curvature involves only the local geometry of a

... the characterisation of curvature involves only the local geometry of a

**surface**, there are important global aspects such as the Gauss-Bonnet theorem, the ... There are other important aspects of the global geometry of**surfaces**... Wilhelm Klingenberg proved in 1959 that the injectivity radius of a**closed surface**is bounded below by the minimum of and the length of its smallest ...Magnetic Field - Relation Between

... where the integral is a line integral over any

*H*and*B*- Magnetization... where the integral is a line integral over any

**closed**loop and Ib is the 'bound current' enclosed by that**closed**loop ... this is equivalent to , where the integral is a**closed surface**integral over the**closed surface**S and qM is the 'magnetic charge' (in units of magnetic flux) enclosed by S ... (A**closed surface**completely surrounds a region with no holes to let any field lines escape.) The negative sign occurs because the magnetization field moves from south to north ...Deformation (mechanics) - Description of Deformation

... the sense that The material points forming a

... the sense that The material points forming a

**closed**curve at any instant will always form a**closed**curve at any subsequent time ... The material points forming a**closed surface**at any instant will always form a**closed surface**at any subsequent time and the matter within the**closed surface**...Magnetic Flux Through A

... is one of the four Maxwell's equations, states that the total magnetic flux through a

**Closed Surface**... is one of the four Maxwell's equations, states that the total magnetic flux through a

**closed surface**is equal to zero ... A "**closed surface**" is a**surface**that completely encloses a volume(s) with no holes.) This law is a consequence of the empirical observation that magnetic monopoles ... Gauss's law for magnetism is the statement for any**closed surface**S ...Electric Flux

... flux is proportional to the number of electric field lines going through a virtual

... flux is proportional to the number of electric field lines going through a virtual

**surface**... words the number of electric lines of force passing through the given**surface**area which is held perpendicular to the direction of electric lines of force is called ... the electric flux passing through a**surface**of vector area S is where E is the magnitude of the electric field (having units of V/m), S is the area of the**surface**, and θ is the angle between the electric field ...### Famous quotes containing the words surface and/or closed:

“We say justly that the weak person is flat, for, like all flat substances, he does not stand in the direction of his strength, that is, on his edge, but affords a convenient *surface* to put upon. He slides all the way through life.... But the brave man is a perfect sphere, which cannot fall on its flat side and is equally strong every way.”

—Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862)

“We are *closed* in, and the key is turned

On our uncertainty;”

—William Butler Yeats (1865–1939)

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