# Closed Surface

### Some articles on surface, surfaces, closed surface, closed:

Differential Geometry Of Surfaces - Global Differential Geometry of Surfaces
... the characterisation of curvature involves only the local geometry of a surface, there are important global aspects such as the Gauss-Bonnet theorem, the ... There are other important aspects of the global geometry of surfaces ... Wilhelm Klingenberg proved in 1959 that the injectivity radius of a closed surface is bounded below by the minimum of and the length of its smallest ...
Magnetic Field - Relation Between H and B - Magnetization
... where the integral is a line integral over any closed loop and Ib is the 'bound current' enclosed by that closed loop ... this is equivalent to , where the integral is a closed surface integral over the closed surface S and qM is the 'magnetic charge' (in units of magnetic flux) enclosed by S ... (A closed surface completely surrounds a region with no holes to let any field lines escape.) The negative sign occurs because the magnetization field moves from south to north ...
Deformation (mechanics) - Description of Deformation
... the sense that The material points forming a closed curve at any instant will always form a closed curve at any subsequent time ... The material points forming a closed surface at any instant will always form a closed surface at any subsequent time and the matter within the closed surface ...
Magnetic Flux Through A Closed Surface
... is one of the four Maxwell's equations, states that the total magnetic flux through a closed surface is equal to zero ... A "closed surface" is a surface that completely encloses a volume(s) with no holes.) This law is a consequence of the empirical observation that magnetic monopoles ... Gauss's law for magnetism is the statement for any closed surface S ...
Electric Flux
... flux is proportional to the number of electric field lines going through a virtual surface ... words the number of electric lines of force passing through the given surface area which is held perpendicular to the direction of electric lines of force is called ... the electric flux passing through a surface of vector area S is where E is the magnitude of the electric field (having units of V/m), S is the area of the surface, and θ is the angle between the electric field ...

### Famous quotes containing the words surface and/or closed:

We say justly that the weak person is flat, for, like all flat substances, he does not stand in the direction of his strength, that is, on his edge, but affords a convenient surface to put upon. He slides all the way through life.... But the brave man is a perfect sphere, which cannot fall on its flat side and is equally strong every way.
Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862)

We are closed in, and the key is turned
On our uncertainty;
William Butler Yeats (1865–1939)