Mode of Action
Cis-regulatory modules can regulate their target genes over large distances, several models have been proposed to describe the way that these modules may communicate with their target gene promoter. DNA Scanning Model: In this model the transcription factor and cofactor complex form at the cis-regulatory module and then continues to move along the DNA sequence until it finds the target gene promoter. Looping Model: In this model the transcription factor binds to the cis-regulatory module, which then causes the looping of the DNA sequence and allows for the interaction with the target gene promoter. Facilitated Tracking Model: This model combines parts of the two previous models. The transcription factor-cis-regulatory module complex causes the looping of the DNA sequence slowly towards the target promoter and forms a stable looped configuration.
Read more about this topic: Cis-regulatory Module
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A mode of action (MoA) describes a functional or anatomical change, at the cellular level, resulting from the exposure of a living organism to a substance. In comparison, a mechanism of action (MOA) describes such changes at the molecular level.
A mode of action is important in classifying chemicals as it represents an intermediate level of complexity in between molecular mechanisms and physiological outcomes, especially when the exact molecular target has not yet been elucidated or is subject to debate. A mechanism of action of a chemical could be "binding to DNA" while its broader mode of action would be "transcriptional regulation". However, there is no clear consensus and the term mode of action is often used, especially in the study of pesticides, to also describe molecular mechanisms such as action on specific nuclear receptors or enzymes.
... A structure of the Vibrio cholerae Cytolysin in the pore form is also heptameric, however Staphylococcus aureus gamma-hemolysin reveals an octomeric pore, consequently with a 16-strand 'stalk' ... The Panton-Valentine Leucocidin S structure shows a highly related structure, but in its soluble monomeric state ...
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