Cis-regulatory module (CRM) is a stretch of DNA, usually 100-1000 DNA base pairs in length, where a number of transcription factors can bind and regulate expression of nearby genes. One cis-regulatory element can regulate several genes, and conversely, one gene can have several cis-regulatory modules. Cis-regulatory modules are one of several types of functional regulatory elements. Regulatory elements are binding sites for transcription factors, which are involved in gene regulation. Cis-regulatory modules perform a large amount of developmental information processing. Cis-regulatory modules are non-random clusters at their specified target site that contain transcription factor binding sites. They are labeled as cis because they are typically located on the same DNA as the genes they control as opposed to trans, which refers to effects on genes not located on the same strand or farther away, such as transcription factors. The original definition presented cis-regulatory modules as enhancers of cis-acting DNA, which increased the rate of transcription from a linked promoter. However, this definition has changed to define cis-regulatory modules as a DNA sequence with transcription factor binding sites which are clustered into modular structures, including -but not limited to- locus control regions, promoters, enhancers, silencers, boundary control elements and other modulators. Cis-regulatory modules can be divided into classes. Enhancers regulate gene expression positively. Insulators work indirectly by interacting with other nearby cis-regulatory modules. Silencers act by silencing genes. Cis-regulatory modules carry out their function by integrating the active transcription factors and the associated co-factors at a specific time and place in the cell, this information is read and an output is given.
Read more about Cis-regulatory Module: Contents, Gene-regulation Function of A cis-regulatory Module, The Boolean Logic Assumption, Identification and Computational Prediction of CRMs, Classification of cis-regulatory Modules, Mode of Action, Cis-regulatory Module in Gene Regulatory Network, See Also
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