Pathology and Laboratory Diagnosis
When CSF pressure is elevated, cerebral blood flow may be constricted. When disorders of CSF flow occur, they may therefore affect not only CSF movement but also craniospinal compliance and the intracranial blood flow, with subsequent neuronal and glial vulnerabilities. The venous system is also important in this equation. Infants and patients shunted as small children may have particularly unexpected relationships between pressure and ventricular size, possibly due in part to venous pressure dynamics. This may have significant treatment implications, but the underlying pathophysiology needs to be further explored.
CSF connections with the lymphatic system have been demonstrated in several mammalian systems. Preliminary data suggest that these CSF-lymph connections form around the time that the CSF secretory capacity of the choroid plexus is developing (in utero). There may be some relationship between CSF disorders, including hydrocephalus and impaired CSF lymphatic transport.
CSF can be tested for the diagnosis of a variety of neurological diseases. It is usually obtained by a procedure called lumbar puncture. Removal of CSF during lumbar puncture can cause a severe headache after the fluid is removed, because the brain hangs on the vessels and nerve roots, and traction on them stimulates pain fibers. This pain can be relieved by intrathecal injection of sterile isotonic saline. Lumbar puncture is performed in an attempt to count the cells in the fluid and to detect the levels of protein and glucose. These parameters alone may be extremely beneficial in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage and central nervous system infections (such as meningitis). Moreover, a CSF culture examination may yield the microorganism that has caused the infection. By using more sophisticated methods, such as the detection of the oligoclonal bands, an ongoing inflammatory condition (for example, multiple sclerosis) can be recognized. A beta-2 transferrin assay is highly specific and sensitive for the detection for, e.g., CSF leakage.
|Pyogenic bacterial meningitis||Yellowish, turbid||Markedly increased||Slightly increased or Normal||Markedly increased||Decreased|
|Viral meningitis||Clear fluid||Slightly increased or Normal||Markedly increased||Slightly increased or Normal||Normal|
|Tuberculous meningitis||Yellowish and viscous||Slightly increased or Normal||Markedly increased||Increased||Decreased|
|Fungal meningitis||Yellowish and viscous||Slightly increased or Normal||Markedly increased||Slightly increased or Normal||Normal or decreased|
Read more about this topic: Cerebrospinal Fluid
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