Butyrate

Butyrate is the traditional name for the conjugate base of butanoic acid (old name butyric acid). The formula of the butyrate ion is C4H7O2−. The archaic name is used as part of the name of butyrates or butanoates, or esters and salts of butyric acid, a short chain fatty acid. Examples include

  • Cellulose acetate butyrate, an aircraft dope
  • Methyl butyrate
  • Ethyl butyrate
  • Butyl butyrate
  • Pentyl butyrate
  • Sodium butyrate a HDAC inhibitor used in psychiatry

Butyrates are important as food for cells lining the mammalian colon (colonocytes). Without butyrates for energy, colon cells undergo autophagy (self digestion) and die. Short-chain fatty acids, which include butyrate, are produced by beneficial colonic bacteria (probiotics) that feed on, or ferment prebiotics, which are plant products that contain adequate amounts of dietary fiber. These short-chain fatty acids benefit the colonocyte by increasing energy production,and cell proliferation and may protect against colon cancer(2).

Butyrate is a major metabolite in colonic lumen arising from bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber and has been shown to be a critical mediator of the colonic inflammatory response. Butyrate possesses both preventive and therapeutic potential to counteract inflammation-mediated ulcerative colitis (UC) and colorectal cancer. One mechanism underlying butyrate function in suppression of colonic inflammation is inhibition of the IFN-γ/STAT1 signaling pathways at least partially through acting as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. While transient IFN-γ signaling is generally associated with normal host immune response, chronic IFN-γ signaling is often associated with chronic inflammation. It has been shown that Butyrate inhibits activity of HDAC1 that is bound to the Fas gene promoter in T cells, resulting in hyperacetylation of the Fas promoter and up-regulation of Fas receptor on the T cell surface. It is thus suggested that Butyrate enhances apoptosis of T cells in the colonic tissue and thereby eliminates the source of inflammation (IFN-γ production).

Other articles related to "butyrate":

Microbial Metabolism - Special Metabolic Properties - Syntrophy
... of this process is the oxidation of fermentative end products (such as acetate, ethanol and butyrate) by organisms such as Syntrophomonas ... Alone, the oxidation of butyrate to acetate and hydrogen gas is energetically unfavorable ... atm) and thereby shift the equilibrium of the butyrate oxidation reaction under standard conditions (ΔGº’) to non-standard conditions (ΔG’) ...
Butyric Acid - Biochemistry - Cancer and Life Span
... The role of butyrate changes differs between normal and cancerous cells ... This is known as the "butyrate paradox" ... Butyrate inhibits colonic tumor cells, and promotes healthy colonic epithelial cells but the signaling mechanism is not well understood ...
Garden Strawberry - Chemistry
... butanoic acid, methyl isovalerate, 3-hexanone (IS), ethyl butyrate, n-hexanal, butyl acetate, methyl pentanoate, 2-methyl butanoic acid, isopropyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoat ...
Butyrates
... Butyrate is the traditional name for the conjugate base of butanoic acid (old name butyric acid) ... The formula of the butyrate ion is C4H7O2− ... Examples include Cellulose acetate butyrate, an aircraft dope Methyl butyrate Ethyl butyrate Butyl butyrate Pentyl butyrate Sodium butyrate a HDAC inhibitor used in ...
Butyric Acid - Biochemistry - Biosynthesis
... Butyrate is produced as end-product of a fermentation process solely performed by obligate anaerobic bacteria ... Examples of butyrate-producing species of bacteria Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium butyricum Clostridium kluyveri Clostridium pasteurianum ... The phosphate group joins ADP to form ATP and butyrate butyrate kinase ATP is produced, as can be seen, in the last step of the fermentation ...