Bulgarian Conjugation - Non-finite Forms - Adverbial Participle

Adverbial Participle

Only imperfective verbs have an adverbial participle. Verbs from the first and second conjugation use the thematic vowel е (/ɛ/) between the stem and the ending -йки (/jkʲi/). Verbs from the third conjugation just add the ending without using a thematic vowel. This participle is immutable.

The adverbial participle keeps the stress of the present tense.

Conjugation Citation
form
Stem Adverbial
Participle
First
and
Second
чета
/tʃɛˈt̪ɤ/
чет-
/tʃɛt̪/
четейки
/tʃɛˈt̪ɛjkʲi/
пиша
piʃə/
пиш-
/piʃ/
пишейки
/ˈpiʃɛjkʲi/
пея
/ˈpɛjə/
пе-
/pɛ/
пеейки
/ˈpɛ.ɛjkʲi/
говоря
/ɡoˈvɔrʲə/
говор-
/ɡoˈvɔr/
говорейки
/ɡoˈvɔrɛjkʲi/
стоя
/st̪oˈjɤ/
сто-
/st̪o/
стоейки
/st̪oˈɛjkʲi/
Third искам
iskəm/
иска-
/ˈiskə/
искайки
/ˈiskəjkʲi/
стрелям
strɛlʲəm/
стреля-
/ˈstrɛlʲə/
стреляйки
/ˈstrɛlʲəjkʲi/

Read more about this topic:  Bulgarian Conjugation, Non-finite Forms

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Adverbial Participle

Adverbial participles are built out of a verb (mostly with a suffix), and in most cases they play the role of a sentence element called adverbial in the grammar of some languages (Russian and other Slavic languages, Hungarian, many Eskimo languages, e.g. Sireniki ). It can usually be translated into English by using an appropriate adverbial clause.

Some descriptive grammars treat them as a distinct lexical category, others avoid that and use a more minimalistic approach. Because the above languages have also adjectival participle, the word participle is meant often for both lexical categories.