The number of qubits in the computer is allowed to be a polynomial function of the instance size. For example, algorithms are known for factoring an n-bit integer using just over 2n qubits (Shor's algorithm).
Usually, computation on a quantum computer ends with a measurement. This leads to a collapse of quantum state to one of the basis states. It can be said that the quantum state is measured to be in the correct state with high probability.
Quantum computers have gained widespread interest because some problems of practical interest are known to be in BQP, but suspected to be outside P. Some prominent examples are:
- Integer factorization (see Shor's algorithm)
- Discrete logarithm
- Simulation of quantum systems (see universal quantum simulator)
- Computing the Jones polynomial at certain roots of unity
Read more about this topic: BQP
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