A more recent definition of borderline hydrides refers to hydrides that exist between classic and non-classic dihydrides. The classic form is the dihydride M(H)2 configuration, where the metal is bound to two free hydrogen atoms. The non-classic form contains two hydrogen atoms bound to a central metal atom with an η2-H2 hapticity, indicating that a single coordination point on the metal atom bonds to two contiguous atoms from another molecule, in this case H2. A well-known example of this is from the first such molecule to be synthesized with a coordinated hydrogen ligand (dihydrogen complex): W(CO)3(PPri3)2(η2-H2). Classic dihydrides containing the dihydride M-(H)2 ligands are typically found as a tautomer with the non-classical dihydrogen complexes containing a M-(η2-H2) group.
Borderline hydrides exist with a bond character somewhere between the classical and non-classical hydrides. Those that are thermally unstable exhibit stretching frequencies νHH greater than 2150 cm1 as a result of poor electron donation from the metal center. An electron dense metal center will yield hydride with a νHH less than 2060 cm1, while anything between is considered to be in the borderline region. Kubas, et al. state that a stretching frequency of 2090 cm1 is within the bounds of stable H2 complexes while 2060 cm1 is right on the borderline between dihydrogen and dihydrides.
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