Biodynamic agriculture is a method of organic farming that emphasizes the holistic development and interrelationships of the soil, plants and animals as a self-sustaining system.. One of the first modern ecological farming systems, it emphasizes a sustainable approach to agriculture.
Biodynamics has much in common with other organic approaches – it emphasizes the use of manures and composts and excludes the use of artificial chemicals on soil and plants. Methods unique to the biodynamic approach include an emphasis on integrating farm animals, the cultivation of crops, and the care of the land, the use of fermented herbal and mineral preparations as compost additives and field sprays, an emphasis from its beginnings on local production and distribution systems using local breeds and varieties and the use of an astronomical sowing and planting calendar. There are independent certification agencies for biodynamic products; most of these agencies are members of the international biodynamics standards group Demeter International.
A 2009/2011 review found that biodynamically cultivated fields achieve lower absolute yields but better energy efficiency of production, impact the environment positively, including increased biodiversity, had greater earthworm populations and biomass than conventional farms, maintained or slightly improved organic carbon levels, while both organic and conventional farming techniques resulted in a loss of organic carbon, and had higher microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity than those of either organically or conventionally farmed fields. As of 2011 biodynamic techniques were used on 142,482 hectares in 47 countries; Germany accounts for 45.1% of the global total. Biodynamic methods of cultivating wine grapes have been taken up broadly, including by notable vineyards
Biodynamic agriculture has been characterized as pseudoscience by critics. Its founder, Rudolf Steiner, and its developers characterize it as "spiritual science". They advocate taking a holistic view rather than a reductionist view.
Other articles related to "biodynamic agriculture, biodynamic, agriculture":
200 wineries worldwide were certified as biodynamic numerous other wineries employ biodynamic methods to a greater or lesser extent ... Family-owned businesses that emphasise "organic, sustainable and biodynamic" want "to pass on healthier farms and businesses to the next generation" ...
... Demeter International is the largest certification organization for biodynamic agriculture, and is one of three predominant organic certifiers ... Demeter Biodynamic Certification is used in over 50 countries to verify that biodynamic products meet international standards in production and processing ... Demeter’s “biodynamic” certification requires biodiversity and ecosystem preservation, soil husbandry, livestock integration, prohibition of genetically engineered ...
... Biodynamic agriculture, the first intentional form of organic farming, began in the 1920s when Rudolf Steiner gave a series of lectures since published as Agriculture ...
Famous quotes containing the word agriculture:
“But the nomads were the terror of all those whom the soil or the advantages of the market had induced to build towns. Agriculture therefore was a religious injunction, because of the perils of the state from nomadism.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)