Big Five Personality Traits

In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality. The theory based on the Big Five factors is called the Five Factor Model (FFM)

The Big Five framework of personality traits from Costa & McCrae, 1992 emerged as a robust model for understanding the relationship between personality and various academic behaviors. The Big Five factors are:

  • Openness (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious)
  • Conscientiousness (efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless)
  • Extraversion (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved)
  • Agreeableness (friendly/compassionate vs. cold/unkind)
  • Neuroticism (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident)

Acronyms commonly used to refer to the five traits collectively are OCEAN, NEOAC, or CANOE.

Beneath each factor, a cluster of correlated specific traits are found; for example, extraversion includes such related qualities as gregariousness, assertiveness, excitement seeking, warmth, activity and positive emotions.

Read more about Big Five Personality TraitsThe Five Factors, Selected Scientific Findings, Criticisms, Further Research

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