Battle of Parma

The Battle of Parma was fought on February 18, 1248 between the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and the Guelphs. The Guelphs attacked the Imperial camp when Frederick II was away. The Imperial forces were defeated and much of Frederick's treasure was lost.

Read more about Battle Of Parma:  Background, Battle, Aftermath

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Battle Of Parma - Aftermath
... The defeat of Parma was a decisive defeat for Frederick, who had to abandon forever any dream to conquer northern Italy ... According to anti-imperial Franciscan chronicler Salimbene di Adam, "Parma fuit causa totius ruine" ("Parma was the cause of the whole ruin") ...

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    Athelstan King,
    Lord among Earls,
    Bracelet-bestower and
    Baron of Barons,
    —Unknown. Battle of Brunanburh (l. 1–4)

    I know I have the body of a weak, feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king—and of a King of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm; to which, rather than any dishonour should grow by me, I myself will take up arms—I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field.
    Elizabeth I (1533–1603)

    What a battle a man must fight everywhere to maintain his standing army of thoughts, and march with them in orderly array through the always hostile country! How many enemies there are to sane thinking! Every soldier has succumbed to them before he enlists for those other battles.
    Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862)