Avalanche Transistor - History


The first paper dealing with avalanche transistors was Ebers & Miller (1955): the paper describes how to use alloy-junction transistors in the avalanche breakdown region, in order to overcome speed and breakdown voltage limitations which affected the first models of such kind of transistor when used in earlier computer digital circuits. Therefore the very first applications of avalanche transistors were in switching circuits and multivibrators. The introduction of the avalanche transistor served also as an application of Miller's empirical formula for the avalanche multiplication coefficient, first introduced in the paper Miller (1955): the need of better understanding transistor behavior in the avalanche breakdown region, not only for using them in avalanche mode, gave rise to an extensive research on impact ionization in semiconductors (see Kennedy & O'Brien (1966)). From the beginning of the 1960s to the first half of the 1970s, several avalanche-transistor circuits were proposed, and also it was studied what kind of bipolar junction transistor is best suited for the use in the avalanche breakdown region: a complete reference, which includes also the contributions of scientists from ex-USSR and COMECON countries, is the book by Дьяконов (Dyakonov) (1973). The first application of the avalanche transistor as a linear amplifier, named Controlled Avalanche Transit Time Triode, (CATT) was described in (Eshbach, Se Puan & Tantraporn 1976): a similar device, named IMPISTOR was described more or less in the same period in the paper of Carrol & Winstanley (1974). Linear applications of this class of devices started later since there are some requirements to fulfill, as described below: also, the use of avalanche transistor in those applications is not mainstream since the devices require high collector to emitter voltages in order to work properly. Nowadays, there is still active research on avalanche devices (transistors or other) made of compound semiconductors, being capable of switching currents of several tens of amperes even faster than "traditional" avalanche transistors.

Read more about this topic:  Avalanche Transistor

Other articles related to "history":

Voltaire - Works - Historical
... History of Charles XII, King of Sweden (1731) The Age of Louis XIV (1751) The Age of Louis XV (1746–1752) Annals of the Empire – Charlemagne, A.D ... II (1754) Essay on the Manners of Nations (or 'Universal History') (1756) History of the Russian Empire Under Peter the Great (Vol ... II 1763) History of the Parliament of Paris (1769) ...
Xia Dynasty - Modern Skepticism
... The Skeptical School of early Chinese history, started by Gu Jiegang in the 1920s, was the first group of scholars within China to seriously question the traditional story of its early history "the later the time, the ... early Chinese history is a tale told and retold for generations, during which new elements were added to the front end" ...
Casino - History of Gambling Houses
... has been seen in almost every society in history ... From the Ancient Greeks and Romans to Napoleon's France and Elizabethan England, much of history is filled with stories of entertainment based on games ... In American history, early gambling establishments were known as saloons ...
History of Computing
... The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid ...
Spain - History - Fall of Muslim Rule and Unification
... The breakup of Al-Andalus into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative ... The capture of the strategically central city of Toledo in 1085 marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms ...

Famous quotes containing the word history:

    The history of American politics is littered with bodies of people who took so pure a position that they had no clout at all.
    Ben C. Bradlee (b. 1921)

    Racism is an ism to which everyone in the world today is exposed; for or against, we must take sides. And the history of the future will differ according to the decision which we make.
    Ruth Benedict (1887–1948)

    There is one great fact, characteristic of this our nineteenth century, a fact which no party dares deny. On the one hand, there have started into life industrial and scientific forces which no epoch of former human history had ever suspected. On the other hand, there exist symptoms of decay, far surpassing the horrors recorded of the latter times of the Roman empire. In our days everything seems pregnant with its contrary.
    Karl Marx (1818–1883)